Pacandus - Titular see, recorded under 'Pacanden.' Pacca, Bartolommeo - Cardinal, scholar and statesman (1756-1844) Pachomius, Saint - Hermit who founded a cenobitical community, d. 346. Some speculation on how and why St. Pachomius came up with the idea of the cenobitical life Pachtler, George Michael - Controversial and educational writer (1825-1889) Pacificus - Disciple of St. Francis of Assisi (d. 1234) Pacificus of Ceredano, Blessed - Franciscan Observant priest, d. 1482 Pacificus of San Severino, Saint - Italian Franciscan. Hampered by blindness, deafness, and lameness for almost 29 years. Died 1721 Pacioli, Lucas - Tuscan mathematician (d. c. 1509) Paderborn - Suffragan diocese of Cologne, Germany Padilla, Juan de - Sixteenth-century protomartyr of the United States Padua - Diocese in northern Italy Padua, University of - University that dates, according to some anonymous chronicles, from 1222 Paganism - Paganism, in the broadest sense includes all religions other than the true one revealed by God, and, in a narrower sense, all except Christianity, Judaism, and Islam Pagano, Mario - Jurisconsult and man of letters (1748-1799) Page, Venerable Anthony - Biographical sketch of the English priest and martyr, who died in 1593 Pagi, Antoine - French ecclesiastical historian (1624-1699) Pagi, François - French ecclesiastical historian, nephew of Antoine Pagi (1654-1721) Pagnino, Santes - Italian Dominican (1470-1541) Painting, Religious - Painting has always been associated with the life of the Church. . . Pakawá Indians - Indian tribe in the region of Texas Palæography - The art of deciphering ancient writing in manuscripts Palæontology - Paleontology, the science of fossils, deals with extinct or prehistoric animals and plants Palafox y Mendoza, Juan de - Spanish priest (1600-1659) Palasor, Venerable Thomas - English priest and martyr. Article also has some details on the his companions in martyrdom the Bl. John Norton and John Talbot. Died in 1600 Palatinate, Rhenish - A former German electorate Palatini - The designation, primarily, of certain high officials in the papal court Palawan - Prefecture Apostolic in the Philippine Islands; comprises Palawan, Cuyo, Culion, Twahig, and Calamines Islands. Palencia - Diocese in Spain Paleopolis - Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus Paleotti, Gabriele - Cardinal and Archbishop of Bologna (1522-1597) Palermo - City and archdiocese in Italy Palermo, University of - The Convent of St. Dominic of Palermo may be considered the nucleus of the future University of Palermo. . . Palestrina - Diocese and town in central Italy, near Rome Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da - The greatest composer of liturgical music of all time (1514-1594) Paley, Frederick Apthorp - Classical scholar (1815-1888) Pall - A heavy, black cloth, spread over the coffin in the church at a funeral, or over the catafalque at other services for the dead. Pall, Funeral - A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased person Palladio, Andrea - Italian architect (1508-1580) Palladius, Saint - Sent from Rome to Ireland in the mid-fifth century as a bishop Palladius - Galatian writer (368-431) Pallavicino, Pietro Sforza - Italian cardinal (1607-1667) Pallium - A circular band about two inches wide, worn about the neck, and having two hanging pendants Pallotti, Vincent Mary - Biography of the founder of the Pious Society of Missions, who are commonly known as the Pallottine Fathers. He died in 1850 Palma Vecchio - Italian artist (1480-1528) Palmer, William - English convert (1811-1879) Palmieri, Domenico - Italian theologian (1829-1909) Palmieri, Luigi - Physicist and meteorologist (1807-1896) Palm in Christian Symbolism - A Christian symbol of victory Palm Sunday - The sixth and last Sunday of Lent and beginning of Holy Week Palmyra - Titular metropolitan see in Phoenicia Secunda. Palou, Francisco - Spanish Franciscan (1722-1789) Paltus - Titular see and suffragan of Seleucia Pieria in Syria Prima. Paludanus, Peter - French archbishop and theologian (1275-1342) Pamelius - Belgian theologian (1536-1587) Pamiers - Diocese near Toulouse in France Pammachius, Saint - Roman senator, widower, friend of SS. Augustine and Jerome, d. 409 Pamphilus of Cæsarea, Saint - Born in Beirut and studied at the Catechetical School in Alexandria. Priest, scholar, martyr. Beheaded in 309 Pamplona - Diocese and city in Spain Panama - Located in Central America Pancratius and Domitilla, Nereus and Achilleus, Saints - Roman martyrs who shared a feast day on 12 May Pandects - Name of part of Justinian's legal compilation Pandulph - Papal legate and Bishop of Norwich (d. 1226) Panemotichus - Titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. Pange Lingua Gloriosi - Article on the two hymns of this name. The second is by Thomas Aquinas. The first is 'generally credited' to Venantius Fortunatus, though some believe it is the work of Claudianus Mamertus Panigarola, Francesco - Italian preacher and controversialist (1548-1594) Pannartz, Arnold - Fifteenth-century printers who brought the printing press to Italy Pano Indians - A former important mission tribe in Peru Panopolis - Titular see, suffragan of Antinoe in Thebais Prima Panpsychism - A philosophical theory which holds that everything in the universe, inorganic and organic, has some degree of consciousness Pantænus - Head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria about 180, still alive in 193 Pantaleon, Saint - Martyr, died in about 309 Pantheism - The false theory according to which God and the world are one Panvinio, Onofrio - Italian historian and archaeologist (1530-1568) Panzani, Gregorio - Bishop of Mileto (d. 1662) Paoli, Venerable Angelo - Carmelite priest, died in 1720 Papacy, The - The ecclesiastical system in which the pope governs the Catholic Church as its supreme head; also, the papal influence viewed as a political force in history. Pápago Indians - An important tribe of Shoshonean linguistic stock Papal Arbitration - An institution almost coeval with the papacy itself Papal Elections - The method of electing the pope has varied considerably at different periods of the history of the Church. . . Papal Mint - History of the coins Papal Rescripts - Responses of the pope or a Sacred Congregation, in writing, to queries or petitions of individuals Papal States - Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years (754-1870) acknowledged the pope as temporal ruler Paphnutius - Name of several persons in the early Church Paphos - Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. Papias, Saint - Thorough essay on what is known of this bishop, called by St. Irenaeus 'a hearer of John.' Also an exposition of the writings of Papias, who died around 120 Papiensis, Bernardus - Italian canonist of the thirteenth century (d. 1213) Papini, Nicholas - Florentine historian (1751-1834) Parables - A comparison, or a parallel, by which one thing is used to illustrate another. Parabolani - The members of a brotherhood who in the Early Church voluntarily undertook the care of the sick and the burial of the dead. Paracelsus, Theophrastus - Extensive biographical entry on the physician and alchemist Paraclete - Another name for the Holy Ghost. Paradise, Terrestrial - The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden Para du Phanjas, François - French Jesuit writer (1724-1797) Parætonium - Titular see of Lybia Secunda or Inferior (i.e. Marmarica), suffragan of Darnis. Paraguay - One of the inland republics of South America Paralipomenon, Books of - Two books of the Bible containing a summary of sacred history from Adam to the end of the Captivity. Parahyba - Diocese in Brazil Parallelism - The balance of verse with verse, an essential and characteristic feature in Hebrew poetry. Parallelism, Psycho-Physical - A doctrine which states that the relation between mental processes, on the one hand, and physical, physiological, or cerebral processes on the other, is one merely of invariable concomitance Paralus - Titular see, suffragan of Cabasa in Aegyptus Secunda. Paraná - Diocese near Buenos Aires in Argentina Parasceve - Among Hellenistic Jews, the name for Friday Paray-le-Monial - A town in France Pardies, Ignace-Gaston - French scientist (1636-1673) Pardons of Brittany - Signifies in Brittany the feast of the patron saint of a church or chapel, at which an indulgence is granted. Paré, Ambroise - French surgeon (1517-1590) Paredes, Blessed Mary Anne de - Of Quito, Ecuador, lived as a solitary in her own home and had many extraordinary spiritual gifts. She died in 1645 Pareja, Francisco - Spanish missionary (1628-1593) Parents - Considers the duties of parents toward their children, and vice versa Parenzo-Pola - Diocese in Italy Parini, Giuseppe - Italian poet (1729-1799) Paris - Archdiocese and city in France Paris, University of - Famous and ancient university in France Paris, Alexis-Paulin - French philologist (1800-1881) Paris, Gaston-Bruno-Paulin - French philologist (1839-1903) Paris, Matthew - Benedictine monk and chronicler (1200-1259) Paris Commune, Martyrs of the - Article on the priests who were killed in Paris in May 1871 Parish - A portion of a diocese under the authority of a priest legitimately appointed to secure the helps of religion for the faithful dwelling therein Parium - Titular see, suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespontus. Park, Abbey of the - Located half a mile south of Louvain, Belgium, founded in 1129 by Duke Godfrey Parkinson, Anthony - English historian (1667-1728) Parlais - Titular see of Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. Parlatore, Filippo - Italian botanist (1816-1877) Parma - Diocese located in central Italy. Parmentier, Antoine-Augustin - French agriculturist (1737-1813) Parmigiano, Il - Italian painter (1504-1540) Parnassus - Titular see in Cappadocia Secunda, suffragan of Mocessus. Parochial Mass - A Mass celebrated for parishioners on all Sundays and holidays of obligation Paræcopolis - Titular see of Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Parochial Missions, Catholic - This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, made, for the most part, among Catholics, to instruct them more fully in the truths of their religion, to convert sinners, rouse the torpid and indifferent, and lift the good to a still higher plane of spiritual effort Parrenin, Dominique - Jesuit missionary to China (1665-1741) Parsis - Small Zoroastrian community in India Particular Judgment - The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that immediately after death the eternal destiny of each separated soul is decided by the just judgment of God Partnership - An unincorporated association of two or more persons, known as partners, having for its object the carrying on in common by the partners of some predetermined occupation for shared profit Paruta, Paolo - Venetian historian and statesman (1540-1598) Pascal, Blaise - French scientist and philosopher (1623-1662) Pascal Baylon, Saint - Aragonese Franciscan lay brother, d. 1592 Pasch - Great Jewish holiday Paschal I, Pope - Pope who reigned from 817 to 824 Paschal II, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1099-1118 Paschal III (Antipope) - Second antipope in the time of Pope Alexander III (d. 1168) Paschal Candle - A large wax candle, usually fixed in a great candlestick and featured in the service on Holy Saturday Paschal Lamb - A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the Passover celebration Paschal Tide - The fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost Paschasius, Saint - A Roman deacon, and a faithful supporter of the antipope Laurentius. Paschasius died sometime between 511 and 514 Paschasius Radbertus, Saint - Biographical article on the deacon, Benedictine abbot, and theologian, who died in 860 Passaglia, Carlo - Italian Jesuit (1812-1887) Passau - Diocese and city in Bavaria Passerat, Joseph, Venerable - A Frenchman, he joined the Redemptorists in Poland. As vicar-general, he founded many houses in Europe and the United States. Died in 1858 Passignano, Domenico - Venetian painter (1558-1638) Passionei, Domenico - Cardinal and theologian (1682-1761) Passionists - Full title: 'The Congregation of Discalced Clerks of the Most Holy Cross and Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ'. Passion Music - Precisely when, in the development of the liturgy, the history of the Passion of Our Lord ceased, during Holy Week, to be merely read and became a solemn recitation, has not yet been ascertained. . . . Passion of Christ, Commemoration of the - A feast kept on the Tuesday after Sexagesima. Passion of Jesus Christ - Devotion to the sufferings of Our Lord, which culminated in His death upon the Cross Passion of Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels - Four separate accounts of the Passion of Our Lord, each of which supplements the others Passion Offices - Offices devoted to 'the instruments of the Passion' Passion Plays - The modern drama does not originate in the ancient, but in the religious plays of the Middle Ages, themselves an outcome of the liturgy of the Church. . . Passions - Motions of the sensitive appetite in man which tend towards the attainment of some real or apparent good, or the avoidance of some evil. Passion Sunday - The fifth Sunday of Lent Passiontide - The two weeks between Passion Sunday and Easter. Passos - Certain pious exercises practiced annually during Lent at Goa and throughout India Passover - Great Jewish holiday Pasteur, Louis - Founder of physio-chemistry, father of bacteriology, inventor of bio-therapeutics (1822-1895) Pasto, Diocese of - Diocese and town in Colombia, South America Pastor - A priest who has the cure of souls, that is, who is bound in virtue of his office to promote the spiritual welfare of the faithful by preaching, administering the sacraments, and exercising certain powers of external government Pastoral Epistles (Timothy and Titus) - Disciples of St. Paul Pastoral Staff - The Pastoral Staff is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture, and which is used by these prelates in performing certain solemn functions Pastoral Theology - The science of the care of souls Pastoureaux, Crusade of the - One of the most curious of the popular movements inspired by a desire to deliver the Holy Land. Patagonia - The southernmost extremity of South America. Patara - Titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, formerly a large cornmercial town, opposite Rhodes. Paten - A small shallow plate or disc of precious metal upon which the element of bread is offered to God at the Offertory of the Mass, and upon which the consecrated Host is again placed after the Fraction. Patenson, Venerable William - English priest, martyred at Tyburn in 1592. During his imprisonment, he converted several of the inmates Pater Noster - Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase 'Lord's Prayer' does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation. During the Middle Ages the 'Our Father' was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated. Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster Pathology, Mental - Discusses the mental faculties and varities of insanity Patmore, Coventry - One of the major poets of the nineteenth century Patmos - A small volcanic island in the Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor Patras - Metropolitan see in Achaia. Patriarch - The word 'patriarch' as applied to Biblical personages comes from the Septuagint version . . . Patriarch and Patriarchate - Names of the highest ecclesiastical dignitaries after the pope, and of the territory they rule. Patrician Brothers - A brotherhood founded in Ireland by Bishop Daniel Delaney Patrick, Saint - Lengthy biographical article on the Apostle of Ireland Patrick's Purgatory, Saint - This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal dates from the days of St. Patrick . . . Patrizi, Francis Xavier - Italian Jesuit exegete (1797-1881) Patrology - The study of the writings of the Fathers of the Church Patron and Patronage - A determinate sum of rights and obligations entailed upon a definite person, the patron, especially in connection with the assignment and administration of a benefice Patron Saints - Statistics on popular titular patrons of churches in Rome, Belgium, and English-speaking countries. Short lists of some national patrons and patron saints of professional occupations Patronage of Our Lady, Feast of the - First permitted by decree for all the provinces of Spain, in memory of the victories obtained over the Saracens, heretics, and other enemies from the sixth century to the reign of Philip IV Patti, Diocese of - Diocese in Sicily Paul, Saint - The great Apostle to the Gentiles Paul I, Pope - Biographical article on this eighth-century pontiff Paul II, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1464 to 1471 Paul III, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1534 to 1549 Paul IV, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1555 to 1559 Paul V, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1605 to 1621 Paul and John, Saints - Roman martyrs, c. 362 Pauli, Johannes - German Franciscan (1455-1530) Paulicians - Dualistic heretical sect, derived originally from Manichaeism. Paulist Fathers - A community of priests for giving missions and doing other Apostolic works, especially for making converts to the Catholic faith Paul of Burgos - Spanish archbishop, lord chancellor and exegete (1351-1435) Paul of Middelburg - Scientist and bishop (1446-1534) Paul of Samosata - Bishop of Antioch (3rd century) Paul of the Cross, Saint - Biographical essay on the Italian-born founder of the Passionists. He died in 1775 Paul the Deacon - Lombard historian (720-799) Paul the Hermit, Saint - Fled into the Egyptian desert to escape the Decian persecution. Died at the age of 113 Paul the Simple, Saint - Monk, disciple of St. Antony, d. around 339 Paul-without-the-Walls, Saint - An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the great Apostle in the Via Ostia was marked by a cella memoriae, near which the Catacomb of Comodilla was established Paula, Saint - Widowed at the age of 32, Paula embarked on the monastic life in Bethlehem, along with her daughter Eustochium. Paula died in 404 Paulinus, Saint - Biographical article on the Roman monk sent by St. Gregory the Great to Kent Paulinus, Saint - Looked upon as a saint even in his own lifetime. He died in 431 Paulinus II, Saint - Patriarch of Aquileia, d. 802 Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo - Missionary and orientalist (1748-1806) Paulinus of Pella - Christian poet of the fifth century Paulists - Various communities of religious that have adopted St. Paul as patron Paulus Diaconus - Lombard historian (720-799) Paulus Venetus - Brief article on this thinker, by Francis E. Tourscher Pavia - Diocese in Lombardy, northern Italy Pavia, University of - Pavia was, even in Roman times, a literary centre . . . Pavillon, Nicolas - Bishop of Alet (1597-1677) Pax - A tablet to be kissed Pax in the Liturgy - A liturgical salutation ('Peace be with you') Payeras, Mariano - Spanish Franciscan (1784-1793) Pázmány, Peter - Famous Hungarian ecclesiastic (d. 1637) Payne, Blessed John - English priest, tortured and martyred on completely fabricated charges of conspiracy to murder the queen. Executed in 1582 Peace Congresses - Meetings of representatives of different nations to obtain a peaceful settlement of differences Peace of the Church - The condition of the Church after the publication at Milan in 313 by Emperor Constantine of an edict of toleration Peasants, War of the (1524-25) - A revolt of the peasants of southern and central Germany Peba Indians - The principal of a small group of South American Indian tribes Pecham, John - Archbishop of Canterbury (1240-1292) Pecock, Reginald - Welsh bishop of Chichester (1395-1460) Pectoral - The breastplate worn by the high priest in the Old Testament Pectorale - The cross worn by the pope, cardinals, bishops and other prelates Pectorius of Autun - The name with which the important document frequently known as the Inscription of Autun concludes. Pednelissus - Titular see in Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge Pedro de Cordova - Spanish Dominican (1460-1525) Pelagia - Discusses four saints of this name Pelagius I, Pope - Pope (d. 561) Pelagius II, Pope - Pope who succeeded Benedict I, when the Lombards were besieging Rome (d. 590) Pelagius and Pelagianism - Fifth-century heresy which denied original sin as well as Christian grace. Pelargus, Ambrose - German theologian (1488-1557) Pelisson-Fontanier, Paul - French writer (1624-1693) Pella - Titular see and suffragan of Scythopolis in Palaestina Secunda. Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph - French scientist (1788-1842) Pellico, Silvio - Italian author and patriot (1788-1854) Pellissier, Guillaume - French bishop (1490-1568) Pelotas - Diocese in Brazil Pelouze, Théophile-Jules - French scientist (1807-1867) Peltrie, Madeleine de la - French noblewoman and foundress (1603-1671) Pelusium - Titular metropolitan see in Egypt, mentioned in Ezekiel 30:15 Pembroke - Diocese in Ottawa, in Canada Peña, Francisco - Spanish canonist (1540-1612) Penal Laws - Treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries since the Reformation. Peñalver y Cardenas, Luis Ignatius - Bishop of New Orleans and Archbishop of Guatemala (1749-1810) Penance (as a Virtue) - Penance designates (1) a virtue; (2) a sacrament of the New Law; (3) a canonical punishment inflicted according to the earlier discipline of the Church; (4) a work of satisfaction enjoined upon the recipient of the sacrament. Penance, Sacrament of - A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins committed after baptism is granted through the priest's absolution to those who with true sorrow confess their sins and promise to satisfy for the same. Pendleton, Henry - English controversialist (d. 1557) Penelakut Indians - A small tribe of Salishan stock in British Columbia Penitentes, Los Hermanos - A society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and Colorado. Penitential Canons - Rules laid down by councils or bishops concerning the penances to be done for various sins. Penitential Orders - A general name for religious congregations whose members are bound to perform extraordinary works of penance, or to provide others with the means of atoning for grave faults. Penitents, Confraternities of - Various congregations with statutes prescribing various penitential works Penne and Atri, Diocese of - Diocese and city near Abruzzi in central Italy Pennsylvania - One of the thirteen original United States of America Penobscot Indians - The principal tribe of the famous Abenaki confederacy of Maine Pension, Ecclesiastical - The right to a certain sum of money to be paid yearly out of the revenues of a church or benefice to a cleric Pentacomia - Titular see of Palestine, suffragan of Areopolis or Rabbah. Pentapolis - The region where stood the five cities of Sodom, Gomorrha, Zoar, Adama and Seboim Pentateuch - The name of the first five books of the Old Testament. Pentecost - A feast which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, fifty days after the Resurrection of Christ Pentecost (Jewish Feast) - The second in importance of the great Jewish feasts. Peoria - Diocese in Illinois, United States Peoria Indians - A principal tribe of the confederated Illinois Indians Pepin the Short - King of the Franks (714-768) Peppergrass, Paul - Novelist, lecturer, and priest, well known under the assumed name of 'Paul Peppergrass' (1810-1864) Perboyre, Blessed Jean-Gabriel - Vincentian priest, missionary to China, where he was tortured and martyred in 1840 Percy, Blessed Thomas - Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572 Percy, John - English Jesuit (1569-1641) Peregrinus - Texts prefixed to the Pauline epistles in many manuscripts Pereira, Benedict - Philosopher, theologian and exegete (1535-1610) Perez, Juan - Confessor to Queen Isabella of Spain (d. before 1513) Pérez de Hita, Ginés - Sixteenth-century Spanish writer Perfection, Christian and Religious - A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end Pergamus - Titular see, suffragan of Ephesus. Perge - Titular metropolitan see in Pamphylia Secunda. Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista - Notes his torn allegiances between sacred and secular music Pericui Indians - Baja California Indian tribe Périgueux - Diocese near Bordeaux in France Periodi - The name under which the Pseudo-Clementine writings are quoted by Epiphanius, Jerome, and the 'Philocalia'. Periodical Literature, Catholic - Publications appearing at intervals either regular or irregular. Perjury - The crime and sin of taking a false oath Permaneder, Franz Michael - Bavarian canonist (1794-1862) Pernter, Joseph Maria - Jesuit scientist (1848-1908) Perpetua and Felicitas, Saints - Martyred at Carthage in 203 Perpetual Adoration - A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed Sacrament Perpetual Adoration, Religious of - A Belgian congregation founded in 1857 Perpetual Adoration, Religious of the - Contemplative Benedictine congregation, founded in 1526 by Sister Elizabeth Zwirer in Switzerland Perpetual Adoration, Sisters of the - An institute of nuns devoted to perpetual adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and to the education of orphan children Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament - Founded in Paris in 1601 Perpetual Help, Our Lady of, Sisters of - Congregation founded in Canada in 1892 Perpetual Help, Our Lady of - A famous Byzantine-style picture painted on wood, with a background of gold Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of - A famous Byzantine-style picture painted on wood, with a background of gold Perpetuus, Saint - Eighth bishop of Tours, d. 490 or 491. St. Perpetuus was greatly devoted to his predecessor St. Martin of Tours Perpignan, Diocese of - Diocese in France Perpignan, University of - Founded in 1349 by Peter IV of Aragon Perraud, Adolphe - Cardinal and academician (1828-1906) Perrault, Charles - French writer (1628-1703) Perrault, Claude - French architect (1613-1688) Perreyve, Henri - French priest (1831-1865) Perrone, Giovanni - Italian Jesuit theologian (1794-1876) Perry, Stephen Joseph - English Jesuit (1833-1889) Persecution - The unlawful coercion of another's liberty or his unlawful punishment Persecutions, Coptic - During the first two centuries the Church of Alexandria seems to have been freer from official persecution at the hands of the Roman Government than its sister churches of Rome and Antioch. . . Perseverance, Final - The preservation of the state of grace till the end of life Persia - The history, religion, and civilization of Persia are offshoots from those of Media. Persian Rite - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar who have separated from them Persico, Ignatius - Italian cardinal (1823-1896) Person - Discusses (1) the definition of 'person', especially with reference to the doctrine of the Incarnation; and (2) the use of the word 'persona' and its Greek equivalents in connection with the Trinitarian disputes. Person, Ecclesiastical - Persons whom a special tie connects with the Church, either because they have received holy orders, or because they have taken vows in a religious order or congregation approved by the Church. Personality - It is proposed in this article to give an account: (1) of the physical constituents of personality in accordance with the scholastic theory; (2) of concepts of personality that conflict with the theory; (3) of abnormalities of consciousness with reference to their bearing on theories of personality. Persons, Robert - English Jesuit (1546-1610) Perth - Diocese and city in Western Australia Pertinax, Publius Helvius - Roman Emperor (A.D. 192) Peru - A republic on the west coast of South America, founded in 1821 after the war of independence, having been a Spanish colony. Perugia - Archdiocese and city in Umbria, central Italy Perugia, University of - Italian university erected in 1308 Perugino - Artist's biography Peruzzi, Baldassare - Italian architect and painter (1481-1537) Pesaro - Diocese in central Italy Pescennius Niger - Emperor of Rome (193-194). Pesch, Tilman - Jesuit philosopher (1836-1899) Pescia - Diocese in Tuscany, Italy Pessimism - Term applied in popular language to persons who habitually take a melancholy view of life; or in philosophy, to a system that attempts to account for the presence of evil in the world. Pessinus - Titular see of Galatia Secunda Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism - One of the greatest pioneers of modern education (1746-1827) Pétau, Denis - French theologian (1583-1652) Peter, Basilica of Saint - The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the first century the gardens of Agrippina lay Peter, Chair of - From the earliest times the Church at Rome celebrated on 18 January the memory of the day when the Apostle held his first service with the faithful of the Eternal City Peter, Saint - Long article on his life Peter, Saint, Epistles of - Considers the authenticity, recipients, occasion, object, and date and place of composition of these two epistles Peter, Sarah - American philanthropist (1800-1877) Peter, Tomb of Saint - The history of the confusion and conflicting authorities surrounding the location of the tomb of Saint Peter Peter Baptist, Saint, and Twenty-Five Companions - Crucified in Nagasaki, 1597 Peterborough - Diocese located in Ontario, Canada Peter Canisius, Blessed - Long essay on the Dutch Jesuit priest, who died in 1597 Peter Cantor - French theologian (d. 1197) Peter Cellensis - Bishop of Chartres (d. 1183) Peter Chrysologus, Saint - Bishop of Ravenna, d. 450. Pious, zealous, and a renowned speaker--thus the name 'Chrysologus' Peter Claver, Saint - Biography of the Spanish Jesuit priest who for 33 years ministered to African slaves in the New World, and tried to stop the slave trade. Died in 1654 Peter Comestor - French theological writer (d. 1178) Peter Damian, Saint - Cardinal, Doctor of the Church. Died in 1072. Biographical article Peter de Blois - French statesman and theologian (1130-1203) Peter de Honestis - Medieval monk (1049-1119) Peter de Regalado, Saint - Spanish Franciscan of the Observance, reformer, d. 1456 Peter de Vinea - Most prominent statesman at the court of Frederick II (1190-1249) Peter Faber, Saint - French priest, one of the first Jesuits, d. 1546 Peter Fourier, Saint - Parish priest, founder of the Congregation of Notre-Dame, reformer, d. 1640 Peter Fullo - Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch (d. 488) Peter Gonzalez, Saint - Spanish Dominican, d. 1246. Patron saint of Spanish and Portuguese sailors Peter Igneus, Blessed - So-called because he successfully underwent trial by fire. Vallombrosian monk, Cardinal of Albano, d. 1089 Peter Lombard - Biobibliographical essay on the Master of the Sentences Peter-Louis-Marie Chanel, Saint - Two articles on the French Marist missionary. Martyred in 1841 Peter Mongus - Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. 490) Peter Nolasco, Saint - Biographical article on the founder of the Mercedarians Peter of Alcántara, Saint - Spanish Franciscan priest, reformer, and mystic. Died in 1562 Peter of Alexandria, Saint - Became bishop of Alexandria in 300, and was martyred in 311 Peter of Aquila - Italian Franciscan theologian and bishop (d. 1361) Peter of Arbues, Saint - More correctly called Peter Arbues, a Spanish canon. Was inquisitor provincial in the Kingdom of Aragon. He was assassinated in 1485 Peter of Auvergne - Philosopher and theologian (d. 1310) Peter of Bergamo - Italian Dominican theologian (d. 1482) Peter of Montboissier, Blessed - Better known as Peter the Venerable. General of the Cluniac order, prominent at the General Council of Pisa, commissioned the first Latin translation of the Koran. Renowned for his virtue and learning. Died in 1156 Peter of Poitiers - French scholastic theologian (1130-1215) Peter of Sebaste, Saint - Brother of SS. Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and Macrina the Younger. Peter was bishop of Sebaste, and died in 391 Peter of Verona, Saint - The son of Manichaeans, he became a Dominican. He was martyred in 1252, and canonized only one year later Peter Snow, Venerable - Short biographical profile of the English martyr, who died in 1598 Peterspence - The name traditionally given to an annual contribution or tribute (originally of a penny from each landowner) paid to the Holy See by various peoples of Christendom. Peterssen, Gerlac - Medieval monk (1377-1411) Peter the Hermit - Article on a man wrongly named by later writers as the instigator of the Crusades. In later life, Peter founded an abbey. He died in 1115 Peter Urseolus, Saint - The doge of Venice. He left his wife to become a Benedictine monk and later a hermit. Died in 987 Petinessus - Titular see in Galatia Secunda Petit-Didier, Matthieu - Benedictine theologian and ecclesiastical historian (1659-1728) Petitions to the Holy See - Requests for faculties, indults, dispensations and other favours, the granting of which is reserved to the Holy See Petra - Titular metropolitan see of Palaestina Tertia Petrarch, Francesco - Italian poet and humanist (1304-1374) Petre, Family of - One of those staunch families that have played a great part in the preservation of the Catholic Faith in England. Petrobrusians - Heretics of the twelfth century Petronilla, Saint - Virgin, martyred at Rome, probably at the end of the first century. She has been venerated as a saint since at least the fourth century Petronius, Saint - Bishop of Bologna, died sometime before 450 Petropolis - Diocese near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Petrus Alfonsus - A Jewish convert and controversialist (1062-1110) Petrus Bernardinus - Florentine heretic (1475-1502) Petrus Diaconus - The name of several men in ecclesiastical history and literature. Petrus de Natalibus - Venetian bishop, author of a collection of lives of the saints; date of birth unknown; d. between 1400 and 1406. Petun Nation - One of the three great divisions of the Huron Indians Peuerbach, George von - Austrian astronomer (1423-1461) Peutinger, Conrad - Antiquarian and humanist (1465-1547) Peyto, William - English cardinal (d. 1558) Pez - Autrian historian (1683-1735) Pfanner, Franz - Abbot (1825-1909) Pfefferkorn, Johannes - Convert from Judaism (1469-1521) Pfister, Adolf - German educationist (1810-1878) Pflug, Julius Von - The last Catholic Bishop of Naumburg-Zeitz (1499-1564) Pforta - Former Cistercian monastery (1137-1540) in Germany Phacusa - Titular see and suffragan of Pelusium, in Augustamnica Prima. Pharao - The title given in Sacred Scripture to the ancient kings of Egypt Pharbætus - Titular see and suffragan of Leontopolis, in Augustamnica Secunda. Pharisees - A politico-religious sect or faction among the adherents of later Judaism, that came into existence as a class about the third century B.C. . . . Pharsalus - Titular see and suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. Phaselis - Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Phasga - A mountain of the Alarm range, east of the Jordan Phenomenalism - Philosophical theories that assert that there is no knowledge other than that of phenomena Philadelphia (Lydia) - Titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Sardes. Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) - Archdiocese in Pennsylvania, United States Philanthropinism - The system of education educed from the ideas of Rousseau and of the German 'Enlightenment', and established by Basedow on the basis of 'philanthropy'. Philastrius, Saint - Bishop of Brescia, died before 397. Catalogued heresies, and preached especially against Arianism Philemon - A citizen of Colossae, to whom St. Paul addressed a private letter, unique in the New Testament, which bears his name. Philip the Apostle, Saint - Brief article on this New Testament figure in Scripture and Christian tradition Philip II (Augustus) - King of France (1165-1223) Philip II - King of Spain (1527-1598) Philip IV - King of France (1268-1314) Philip of Jesus, Saint - Biography of the Mexican-born Franciscan martyr, the patron saint of Mexico City. Crucified in Nagasaki in 1597 Philip of the Blessed Trinity - Discalced Carmelite and theologian (1603-1671) Philip the Arabian - Emperor of Rome (reigned 244-249) Philip Romolo Neri, Saint - Biographical article on the Apostle of Rome, who died in 1595 Philippi - Macedonian town on the borders of Thracia Philippi - Titular metropolitan see in Macedonia. Philippians, Epistle to the - Epistle written by St. Paul to the Christians of Philippi Philippine Islands - An island nation in the Pacific Ocean Philippopolis - Titular metropolitan see of Thracia Secunda. Philippopolis - Titular see in Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Philips, Peter - English priest (b. 1560) Philistines - Inhabitants of the maritime plain of Palestine from the time of Judges onward Phillip, Robert - French priest (d. 1647) Phillips, George - Austrian canonist (1804-1872) Philo Judæus - Article on his life, writings and doctrine, by Emile Brehier Philomelium - Titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. Philomena, Saint - An article on St. Philomena, whose relics were discovered at the beginning of the nineteenth century Philosophy - Detailed article on the history of the 'love of wisdom' Philoxenus - One of the greatest masters of Syriac prose (d. 523) Phocæa - Titular see in Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. Phœnicia - A narrow strip of land, about 30 x 150 miles, shut in between the Mediterranean on the west and the high range of Lebanon on the east Photinus - Heretic, Galatian, deacon to Marcellus, Metropolitan of Ancyra (d. 376) Photius of Constantinople - Chief author of the great schism between East and West (b. c. 815) Phylacteries - Small square cases of leather, worn on the forehead and forearm, used for devotional purposes Physics, History of - An article on the history and theories of physics Physiocrats - Describes the origins of Physiocratic theory Physiologus - An early Christian work of a popular theological type, describing animals real or fabulous and giving each an allegorical interpretation. Piacenza - Diocese in central Italy Pianciani, Giambattista - Italian Jesuit scientist (1784-1862) Pianô Carpine, Giovanni da - Italian Franciscan (1182-1252) Piatto Cardinalizio - An allowance granted by the pope to certain cardinals Piatus of Mons - Belgian priest and canonist (1815-1904) Piauhy - Diocese in northeastern Brazil Piazza Armerina - Located in Sicily, Italy Piazzi, Giuseppe - Italian astronomer (1746-1826) Pibush, John - English priest and missionary to his native land, imprisoned for more than six years, on trial twice for the crime of being a priest, martyred at Waterings in 1600 or 1601 Picard, Jean - French astronomer (1620-1682) Piccolomini, Alessandro - Litterateur, philosopher, astronomer (1508-1578) Piccolomini-Ammannati, Jacopo - Italian cardinal (1422-1479) Pichler - Renowned Austrian family of gem-cutters who lived and died in Italy. Pichler, Vitus - German canonist and controversial writer (1670-1736) Pickering, Ven. Thomas - Benedictine lay brother, martyred in 1679 Piconio, Bernadine a - French Capuchin (1633-1709) Picture Bibles - In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement the knowledge acquired by reading or oral teaching Picquet, François - Sulpician missionary in Canada (1708-1781) Pie, Louis-Edouard-Désiré - French cardinal (1815-1880) Pieck, Saint Nicholas - Franciscan, studied at Louvain, was ordained a priest. He was martyred in 1572 Piedmont - A region of northern Italy Piel, Peter - A German pioneer in the movement for reform of church music (1835-1904) Pie Pelicane, Jesu, Domine - The sixth quatrain of Adoro Te Devote, sometimes used as a separate hymn at Benediction of the Most Blessed Sacrament Pierius - Priest and probably head master of the catechetical school at Alexandria (d. after 309) Pierre de Castelnau, Blessed - Cistercian, worked for the conversion of the Albigensians, was martyred in 1208 Pierre de Maricourt - Article on this 13th-century theorist of optics and magnetism, written by Pierre Duhem Pierron, Jean - French missionary (b. 1631) Pierson, Philippe - Belgian Jesuit (1642-1688) Pietism - Seventeenth-century Protestant reform movement Pighius, Albert - Theologian, mathematician, and astronomer (1490-1542) Pignatelli, Venerable Giuseppe Maria - Jesuit priest, novice master, provincial, d. 1811 Pike, William - A Dorset layman, a joiner by trade. Converted to Catholicism. He was martyred in 1591 Pilar, Nuestra Señora del - 'Our Lady of the Pillar', a celebrated church and shrine, at Saragossa, Spain, containing a miraculous image of the Blessed Virgin Pilate, Pontius - Fifth procurator of Judea (A.D. 26-36) who ordered the crucifixion of Our Lord Pilchard, Venerable Thomas - Or Pilcher. Short biography of the English priest and martyr. He was executed at Dorchester, 21 March 1586 or 1587 Pileolus - The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic Pilgrimage of Grace - A religious rising in the north of England in 1536. Pilgrimages - Journeys made to some place with the purpose of venerating it, or in order to ask there for supernatural aid, or to discharge some religious obligation. Piligrim - Bishop of Passau (d. 991) Pillar of Cloud/Fire - A luminous cloud that accompanied the Israelites during their wandering Pima Indians - An important tribe of Southern Arizona, centering along the middle Gila and the Salt River. Pinara - Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra Pinar del Rio - Diocese in Cuba Pindemonte, Ippolito - Italian poet (1753-1828) Pineda, John de - Spanish Jesuit (1558-1637) Pinerolo - Diocese near Turin in Italy Pingré, Alexandre Guy - French theologian and astronomer (1711-1796) Pinna da Encarnaçao, Mattheus - Brazilian writer and theologian (1687-1764) Pinto, Fernão Mendes - Portuguese traveller (1509-1583) Pinturicchio - Italian artist (1454-1513) Pinzón, Martín Alonso - Spanish navigator and companion of Columbus (1441-1493) Piombo, Sebastiano del - Venetian portrait painter (1485-1547) Pionius, Saint - Martyred at Smyrna in 250 Pious Fund of the Californias, The - Originated in 1697 in voluntary donations made to Jesuits in Mexico for the propagation of the Faith in California Pious Society of Missions, The - Founded by Vincent Mary Pallotti in 1835; generally called Pallottini Fathers. Piranesi, Giambattista - Italian etcher and engraver (1720-1778) Pirhing, Ernricus - German Jesuit (1606-1681) Pirkheimer - Poor Clare abbess (1466-1532) Piro Indians - A tribe of considerable importance in northeastern Peru Pisa - Archdiocese in Tuscany in central Italy Pisa, Council of - council held in the fifteenth century to settle the question of the Great Western Schism Pisa, University of - In the eleventh century there were many jurisconsults at Pisa who lectured on law; prominent among them were Opitone and Sigerdo. . . Pisano, Andrea - An Italian sculptor and architect, b. 1270; d. 1349 Pisano, Niccola - Pisan architect and sculptor (1205-1278) Piscataway Indians - The first Indian tribe whose Christianization was attempted under English auspices Piscina - Liturgical structures used in baptisms or priestly ablutions Pise, Charles Constantine - Priest, poet, and prose writer (1801-1866) Pisidia - A country in the southwestern part of Asia Minor Pistoia, Synod of - Held in 1786 by Scipio de' Ricci in an effort to advance Jansenism Pistoia and Prato - Diocese near Florence, Italy Pistorius, Johann - German controversialist and historian (1546-1608) Pithou, Pierre - French writer (1539-1596) Pitoni, Joseph - Italian musician (1657-1743) Pitra, Jean-Baptiste-François - Cardinal, archaeologist and theologian (1812-1889) Pitts, John - English priest (1560-1616) Pittsburgh - Diocese in western Pennsylvania in the United States of America Pityus - Titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocaesarea. Pius I, Pope Saint - He excommunicated Marcion, and died in about 154 Pius II, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1458 to 1464 Pius III, Pope - Pope who reigned for four weeks in 1503 Pius IV, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1559 to 1565 Pius V, Pope Saint - Biography of the sixteenth-century pontiff Pius VI, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1775 to 1799 Pius VII, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1800 to 1823 Pius VIII, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1829 to 1830 Pius IX, Pope - Biography of this pope, who died in 1878 Pius X, Pope Saint - Long article on the pontiff Piusverein - The name given to Catholic associations in various countries of Europe. Pizarro, Francisco - Concise biographical article on the explorer Placidus, Saint - An early follower of St. Benedict Plagues of Egypt - Ten calamities inflicted on the Egyptians to overcome Pharaoh's obstinacy and force him to let the Israelites to leave Egypt Plain Chant - Description and history of the precursor to Gregorian chant Plantaganet, Henry Beaufort - Cardinal, Bishop of Winchester (1377-1447) Plantin, Christophe - Book-binder and publisher in Antwerp (1514-1589) Plants in the Bible - Discusses all of the types of plants mentioned in the Sacred Scriptures Plasencia - Diocese in Italy Plateau, Joseph-Antoine - Belgian physicist (1801-1883) Platina, Bartolomeo - Humanist and Vatican librarian (1421-1481) Plato and Platonism - Greek philosopher (b. c. 428 B.C.) Play, Pierre-Guillaume-Frédéric Le - French economist (1806-1882) Plegmund - Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 914) Plenarium - A book of formulae and texts. Plenary Council - A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods. Plessis, Joseph-Octave - Bishop of Quebec (1763-1822) Plethon, Georgius Gemistus - Philosopher in Constantinople (1355-1450) Plock - Diocese near Warsaw Plowden, Charles - English Jesuit (1743-1821) Plowden, Edmund - English jurist and writer (1517-1584) Plowden, Francis - English jurist and writer (1749-1819) Plowden, Robert - Belgian Jesuit (1740-1823) Plowden, Thomas - English Jesuit (1594-1664) Plowden, Thomas Percy - English Jesuit (1672-1745) Plumier, Charles - French botanist (1646-1704) Plunket, Blessed Oliver - Biographical article on the professor of theology, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland, martyred in 1681 Pluscarden Priory - Valliscaulian monastery founded in 1230 Plymouth - Diocese in England Pneumatomachi (Macedonians) - A fourth- and fifth-century heretical sect that denied the divinity of the Holy Ghost Poetry, Hebrew, of the Old Testament - No one can read attentively the poorest version of the Old Testament without feeling how strong a vein of poetry runs through its pages. . . Poggio Bracciolini, Giovanni Francesco - Italian humanist and historian (1380-1459) Poggio Mirteto - Diocese in central Italy Pogla - Titular see in Pamphylia Secunda Poitiers - Diocese and city in France Poland - Country in eastern Europe Polding, John Bede - Archbishop of Sydney (1794-1877) Pole, Blessed Margaret - Biography of the Countess of Salisbury, martyred in 1541 Pole, Reginald - English cardinal (1500-1558) Polemonium - Titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocaesarea. Poleni, Giovanni - Italian marquess, physicist, and antiquarian (1683-1761) Poles in the United States - Covers the causes and history of the Polish immigration Policastro - Diocese near Salerno in southern Italy Polignac, Melchior de - Cardinal, diplomatist, and writer (1661-1742) Polish Literature - Of the literature of Poland before the advent of Christianity (965) very few traces indeed are extant . . . Politi, Lancelot - Siennese canon lawyer (1483-1553) Politian - Italian humanist (1454-1494) Political Economy, Science of - The social science which treats of man's activities in providing the material means to satisfy his wants Pollajuolo, Antonio and Piero Benci - Florentine portrait painters in the fifteenth century Polo, Marco - Venetian traveller (1251-1324) Polybotus - Titular see in Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. Polycarp, Saint - Long article on what we can know about St. Polycarp, from ancient sources. Martyred in 155 Polycarpus - The title of a canonical collection in eight books composed in Italy by Cardinal Gregorius. Polyglot Bibles - The first Bible which may be considered a Polyglot is that edited at Alcala, Spain, in 1502-17 . . . Polystylum - Titular see of Macedonia Secunda, suffragan of Philippi. Polytheism - The belief in, and consequent worship of, many gods. Pomaria - Titular see in Mauretania Caesarea. Pombal, Marquis de - Portuguese prime minister (1699-1782) Pomerania - Prussian province on the Baltic Sea situated on both banks of the River Oder Pompeiopolis - Titular see in Paphlagonia. Pomponazzi, Pietro - Short article on the philosopher, by U. Benigni Ponce, John - Irish philosopher and theologian (1603-1670) Ponce de León, Juan - Concise biographical article on the explorer Poncet, Joseph Anthony de la Rivière - French missionary (1610-1675) Pondicherry - Archdiocese located in India Pontefract Priory - Cluniac monastery founded about 1090 in England Pontian, Pope Saint - He was exiled to the Sardinian mines in 235 and died there of privation Pontifical Colleges - Institutions of higher learning placed under the Holy See Pontifical Decorations - The titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other marks of honour and distinction which the papal court confers upon men of unblemished character who have in any way promoted the interests of society, the Church, and the Holy See Pontifical Mass - The solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop with the ceremonies prescribed in the 'Caeremoniale Episcoporum' Pontificale - A liturgical book which contains the rites for the performance of certain episcopal functions Pontificalia - Episcopal insignia which are rightfully worn by bishops alone Pontigny, Abbey of - Second daughter of Citeaux in the Diocese of Sens Pontius Carbonell - Spanish Franciscan (d. 1320) Pontius Pilate - Fifth procurator of Judea (A.D. 26-36) who ordered the crucifixion of Our Lord Pontus - The ancient name of the northeastern province of Asia Minor, a long and narrow strip of land in the Black Sea, from which the designation was later transferred to the country. Pools in Scripture - In the English Bibles, the word 'pool' stands for three Hebrew words . . . Poona - Diocese in India Poor, Care of, by the Church - The care of the poor is a branch of charity, which is the exercise of mercy toward one's fellowman rooted in the love of God Poor, Little Sisters of the - An active, unenclosed religious congregation founded 1839 in Brittany Poor Brothers of St. Francis Seraphicus - Congregation of lay brothers of the Third Order of St. Francis Poor Catholics - A religious mendicant order, organized in 1208, to reunite the Waldenses with the Church and combat heresies such as Albigensianism Poor Child Jesus, Sisters of the - A congregation founded at Aachen in 1844 for the support and education of poor, orphan, and destitute children Poor Clares - The second order of St. Francis Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ - Religious community founded by Catherine Kasper Poor, Sisters of the, of St. Francis - A congregation founded by Mother Frances Schervier at Aachen in the year 1845 Poor Handmaids of the Mother of God - Religious congregation founded in 1808 by Mother Mary Magdalen Taylor in conjunction with Lady Georgiana Fullerton Poor Laws - Those legal enactments which have been made at various periods of the world's history in many countries for the relief of various forms of distress and sickness prevailing amongst the destitute. Popayán - Archdiocese established by Pope Paul III in 1547 Pope, The - The bishop of Rome, successor of St. Peter, chief of the whole Church, and the Vicar of Christ on earth Popes, Chronological Lists of the - The historical lists of popes, from those drawn up in the second century to those of the present day, form in themselves a considerable body of literature . . . Popes, Election of the - The pope becomes chief pastor because he is the Bishop of Rome; he does not become Bishop of Rome because he has been chosen to be head of the universal Church . . . Popes, List of - In chronological order. Links to a biographical essay on each. For popes up through Pope St. Pius X (d. 1914), entries are taken from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. Information on later popes is taken from Joseph Brusher's 'Popes Through the Ages.' Pope, Alexander - English poet, son of Alexander Pope (1688-1744) Poppo, Saint - Cluniac Benedictine abbot and reformer. Died in 1048 Popular Devotions - Brief explanation of the spiritual practices collectively called 'devotions' or 'popular devotions.' Population, Theories of - Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between increase of population and increase of subsistence. . . Porch (or Vestibule, in Architecture) - A hall projecting in front of the facade of a church, found from the fifth century both in the East and the West Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio - Italian painter (1483-1539) Pordenone, Ordric of - Franciscan missionary (1286-1331) Pormort, Ven. Thomas - English priest twice imprisoned. The second time he was tortured, and finally martyred in 1592 Porphyreon - Titular see, suffragan of Tyre in Phoenicia Prima. Porphyrius, Saint - Bishop of Gaza, died in 420 Porrecta, Serafino - Italian theologian (1536-1614) Porta, Carlo - Milanese poet (1775-1821) Porta, Giacomo della - Architect and sculptor (1541-1604) Portalegre - Suffragan diocese of Lisbon, Portugal, established by Pope Julius III in 1550 Port Augusta - Diocese in southern Australia Port-au-Prince - Archdiocese and city in Haiti Porter, George - Archbishop of Bombay (1825-1889) Portable Altar - Consists of a solid piece of natural stone which must be sufficiently hard to resist every fracture Porter - A minor order also called "doorkeeper" Portiuncula - A town and parish near Assisi, Italy Portland - Diocese in Maine; suffragan of Boston Port Louis - Diocese in the Indian Ocean Porto Alegre - Archdiocese in eastern Brazil Porto Alegre - Diocese and city in Brazil Porto and Santa-Rufina - United diocese in Italy Port of Spain - Archdiocese and town in Trinidad Porto Rico - More properly spelled 'Puerto Rico'; the smallest and most easterly of the Greater Antilles Portoviejo - Diocese near Quito in Ecuador Portraits of the Apostles - The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of the fourth century. . . Port-Royal - A celebrated Benedictine abbey which profoundly influenced the religious and literary life of France during the seventeenth century. Portsmouth - Diocese in England, created in 1882 Portugal - A country on the west side of the Iberian Peninsula Portuguese Literature - The Portuguese language was developed gradually from the 'lingua rustica' spoken in the countries which formed part of the Roman Empire . . . Portuguese East Africa - Portuguese activity on that coast began in 1505 with the foundation of the Captaincy of Sofala, and in 1558 a fortress was built at Mozambique . . . Portuguese West Africa - The name usually given to the Province of Angola. Port Victoria - Diocese in the Seychelles in the Indian Ocean Positivism - A system of philosophical and religious doctrines elaborated by Auguste Comte. Possenti, Blessed Gabriel - Passionist student, d. 1862 Possession, Demonical - The control of a man's body though never his soul from within by evil spirits Possevinus, Antonius - Theologian and papal envoy (1533-1611) Possidius, Saint - Bishop of Calama, was a friend of St. Augustine for 40 years Postcommunion - The final prayers of thanksgiving and petition at the end of every Mass Postgate, Nicholas - Brief profile of the English priest and martyr, who died at York in 1679 Postulant - A preliminary stage to the novitiate existing from the institution of monasticism. Postulation - A petition presented to a competent ecclesiastical superior, that he may promote to a certain dignity a person who is not strictly eligible on account of some canonical impediment Potawatomi Indians - An important tribe of Algonquin linguistic stock Pothier, Robert Joseph - French lawyer (1699-1772) Pouget, Jean-François-Albert du - French anthropologist (1817-1904) Pounde, Thomas - English lay brother (1538-1612) Poussin, Nicolas - An article about the artist, with bibliography Poverty - Discusses poverty as a concept and canonical discipline Poverty and Pauperism - Persons whose existence is dependent for any considerable period upon charitable assistance, whether this assistance be public or private. Powel, Philip - Short biography of the Benedictine priest and martyr. He was executed at Tyburn in 1646 Powell, Blessed Edward - Biography of the Welsh priest, Bl. Thomas Abel's companion in martyrdom, d. 1506 Poynter, William - English priest (1762-1827) Pozzo, Andreas - Italian painter and architect (1642-1709) Pozzuoli - Diocese near Naples in southern Italy Prades, Jean-Martin de - Theologian (1720-1782) Prado, Jerome de - Spanish exegete (1547-1595) Praelatus Nullius - A prelate who exercises quasi-episcopal jurisdiction in a territory not comprised in any diocese Pragmatic Sanction - An edict formally issued by the emperor or king Pragmatism - As a tendency in philosophy, signifies the insistence on usefulness or practical consequences as a test of truth. Prague - An archdiocese in Bohemia. Prague, University of - Founded by Charles IV in 1345 Praxeas - An early anti-Montanist mentioned by Tertullian Praxedes and Pudentiana - Martyrs of an unknown era. Pray, George - Hungarian abbot, canon, librarian and historian (1723-1801) Pray Brethren - The exhortation addressed by the celebrant to the people before the Secrets in the Roman Mass Prayer - The raising of the heart and mind to God Prayer, Lord's - Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase 'Lord's Prayer' does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation. During the Middle Ages the 'Our Father' was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated. Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster Prayer-Books - A collection of forms of prayer intended for private devotion, and in so far distinct from the 'service books' which contain the liturgical formularies used in public worship. Prayer of Christ, Feast of the - A feast that commemorates the prolonged prayer which Christ offered in Gethsemane in preparation for His Sacred Passion. Prayer of Quiet - A degree of contemplation in which the soul experiences an extraordinary peace and rest Prayers for the Dead - Catholic teaching regarding prayers for the dead is bound up inseparably with the doctrine of purgatory and the more general doctrine of the communion of the saints, which is an article of the Apostle's Creed Preacher Apostolic - A dignitary of the pontifical household. Preachers, Order of - An extensive article about several branches of the Dominicans, including their history Preadamites - The supposed inhabitants of the earth prior to Adam. Prebend - The right of a member of a chapter to his share in the revenues of the cathedral; also the share to which he is entitled Precaria - A contract granting to a petitioner the use and usufruct of a revenue-bearing ecclesiastical property Precedence - The right to enjoy a prerogative of honour before other persons Precentor - A word describing sometimes an ecclesiastical dignitary, sometimes an administrative or ceremonial officer Precept - Precept, in its common acceptation, is opposed to 'counsel', inasmuch as the former imposes an obligation, while the latter is a persuasion Precious Blood - The blood of our Divine Saviour. Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the Most - Confraternities which make it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ Precious Blood, Congregation of the Most - An association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions and retreats. Precious Blood, Congregations of the - A congregation of nuns, no longer in existence, founded by Mother Ballou with the assistance of St. Francis de Sales, as an offshoot of the reformed Cistercianesses. Precious Blood, Feast of the Most - For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been assigned, the office being in both cases the same. . . Precipiano, Humbert-Guillaume de, Count - Prelate (1626-1711) Preconization - The ratification in a public consistory of the choice made by a third person of a particular benefice Predestinarianism - A heresy which reduces the eternal salvation of the elect as well as the eternal damnation of the reprobate to one cause alone, namely to the sovereign will of God, and thereby excludes the free co-operation of man as a secondary factor in bringing about a happy or unhappy future in the life to come. Predestination - Those divine decrees which have reference to the supernatural end of rational beings, especially of man Preface - The first part of the Eucharistic prayers in all rites Prefect Apostolic - A type of ecclesiastical jurisdiction Prefecture Apostolic (Supplemental List) - A list of the prefectures Apostolic that have been erected or changed during the publication of the earlier volumes of this work Prelate - The holder of a prelature Prémare, Joseph Henri Marie de - Jesuit missionary and sinologist (1666-1736) Premonstratensian Canons - Religious order founded in 1120 by St. Norbert Prémontré, Abbey of - Located in France; founded by St. Norbert. Presbyterianism - One of the groups of ecclesiastical bodies that represent the features of Protestantism emphasized by Calvin. Presbytery - The part of the church reserved for the higher clergy Prescription - A method created by law for acquiring ownership or ridding oneself of certain burdens on the fulfilment of fixed conditions Prescription in Civil Jurisprudence - Prescription 'in some form and under some name' is said to have existed as a part of the municipal law of every civilized nation, except the Jewish . . . Presence, Real - Article considers: the fact of the Real Presence; the several allied dogmas grouped about it; and the speculations of reason, so far as speculative investigation regarding the august mystery under its various aspects is permissible, and so far as it is desirable to illumine it by the light of philosophy Presence of God - It is of faith that God is present by His essence everywhere and in all things by reason of His 'immensity' . . . Presentation, Feast of the - Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin, Feast of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple Presentation, Order of the - An order founded at Cork, Ireland Presentation, Religious Congregations of the - Various religious orders Presentation, Right of - The naming to the ecclesiastical authorities of a suitable cleric for a particular benefice. Presentation Brothers - In the early part of the nineteenth century when the Penal Laws were relaxed, and the ban which was placed on the Catholic education of youth in Ireland . . . Presentation of Mary, Congregation of the - French congregation devoted to the education of young girls Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the - According to some apocryphal writings, Mary, at the age of three, was brought by her parents to the Temple, in fulfillment of a vow, there to be educated Prester John - Name of a legendary Eastern priest and king. Preston, Thomas - English Benedictine (d. 1640) Preston, Thomas Scott - New York priest, convert and author (1824-1891) Presumption - A product of pride, and a vice opposed to the theological virtue of hope Presumption - A term signifying a reasonable conjecture concerning something doubtful, drawn from arguments and appearances, which by the force of circumstances can be accepted as a proof Pretorium - The building Pilate occupied at the time of Christ's Passion Pride - The excessive love of one's own excellence. Priene - Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. Priest - The minister of Divine worship and sacrifice Priest, Assistant - The first and highest in dignity of the ministers who assist the bishop in pontifical functions. Priest, High - The chief priest in the Old Testament Priesthood - Brief yet thorough examination of this sacrament Priestly Perseverance, Association of - A sacerdotal association founded in 1868 at Vienna, and at first confined to that Archdiocese Priests, Confraternities of - A society of persons associated for some pious object. Priests' Communion League - Association of priests established at Rome in 1906 Priests' Eucharistic League - Established in Paris by Pierre-Julien Eymard Primacy - The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the pope as pastor and governor of the Universal Church Primadicci, James - Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460 Primate - A bishop possessing superior authority, not only over the bishops of his own province, but over several provinces and metropolitans Prime - Article on the office of Prime, now suppressed Primer, The - The common English name for a book of devotions which from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century was the ordinary prayer-book used by the laity. Primicerius - The heads of the colleges of Notarii and Defensores, which occupied an important place in the early administration of the Church Primus and Felician, Saints - Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution, in about 304 Prince Albert, Diocese of - Suffragan see in Saskatchewan, Canada. Prior - A monastic superior. Prioress - A superioress in a monastic community for women Priory - A monastery whose superior is a prior. Prisca, Saint - Roman martyr of unknown date Priscianus - Sixth-century Latin grammarian Priscilla and Aquila - Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome in the Jewish persecution under Claudius, 49 or 50, and settled in Corinth Priscillianism - A heresy that originated in Spain in the fourth century and was derived from the Gnostic-Manichaean doctrines taught by Marcus, an Egyptian from Memphis. Prisons - Discusses the history of prisons, as well as the influence of Christianity in their development and modern reform Prisons, Ecclesiastical - The ecclesiastical idea of imprisonment is that confinement be made use of both as a punishment and as affording an opportunity for reformation and reflection. . . Privilege - A permanent concession made by a legislator outside of the common law Privileged Altar - An altar is said to be privileged when, in addition to the ordinary fruits of the Eucharistic Sacrifice, a plenary indulgence is also granted whenever Mass is celebrated thereon Privileges, Ecclesiastical - Exceptions to the Law made in favour of the clergy or in favour of consecrated and sacred objects and places. Proba, Faltonia - Christian poetess of the fourth century. Probabilism - The moral system which holds that, when there is question solely of the lawfulness or unlawfulness of an action, it is permissible to follow a solidly probable opinion in favour of liberty even though the opposing view is more probable. Probus, Marcus Aurelius - Roman Emperor (276-82) Probus, Tarachus, and Andronicus, Saints - Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (c. 304) Processional, Roman - This book consists of a single section of the Roman Ritual with sundry supplementary materials taken from the Missal and the Pontifical. Processional Cross - A crucifix which is carried at the head of a procession, and which is usually mounted upon a long staff or handle Processions - Processions, an element in all ceremonial, are to be found, as we should expect, in almost every form of religious worship. . . . Processus and Martinian, Saints - Martyrs venerated since the fourth century at the latest Proclus, Saint - Patriarch of Constantinople, disciple of St. John Chrysostom, and died in 446 or 447 Proconnesus - A titular see in Hellespont Procopius of Caesarea - Biographical article providing an overview of the historian's life and major writings Procter, Adelaide Anne - English poetess and philanthropist (1825-1864) Procurator - A person who manages the affairs of another by virtue of a charge received from him. Profession, Religious - Describes both a declaration openly made, and a state of life publicly embraced Promise, Divine - Embraces promises made by man to his fellowman, by man to God, and by God to man Promotor Fidei - An official of the Roman Congregation of Rites Promulgation - The act by which the legislative power makes legislative enactments known to the authorities entrusted with their execution and to the subjects bound to observe them Proof - The establishment of a disputed or controverted matter by lawful means or arguments. Propaganda, Sacred Congregation of - The department of the pontifical administration charged with the spread of Catholicism and with the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in non-Catholic countries. Propagation of the Faith, The Society for the - An international association for the assistance by prayers and alms of Catholic missionary priests, brothers, and nuns engaged in preaching the Gospel in non-Catholic countries. Property - The person who enjoys the full right to dispose of it insofar as is not forbidden by law Property, Ecclesiastical - That the Church has the right to acquire and possess temporal goods is a proposition which may now probably be considered an established principle. But though almost self-evident and universally acted upon in practice, this truth has met with many contradictors. . . Property, Ecclesiastical, in the United States - The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore decreed: 'We must hold, holily and inviolably, that the complete right of ownership and dominion over ecclesiastical goods resides in the Church' . . . Prophecy - Says that in the strict sense, prophecy is the revelation of future events, but points out that in Scripture, prophecy may also be related to the gift of knowledge and sometimes is used to refer to divine inspiration concerning any secret Prophecy, Prophet, and Prophetess - Discusses prophecy and prophets in the Old and New Testaments Proprium - Forms in the present liturgy the two principal portions of our breviary and missals Proschko, Franz Isidor - Austrian author (1816-1891) Prose or Sequence - A liturgical hymn used on certain festivals before the Gospel in the Mass Proselyte - As used in the New Testament, a convert to Judaism Proske, Karl - Silesian physician (1794-1861) Prosper of Aquitaine, Tiro - Christian writer and disciple of St. Augustine (c. 390-465) Protasius and Gervasius, Saints - Martyred in Milan, probably in the second century Protector, Altar - A cover made of cloth, baize or velvet which is placed on the table of the altar, during the time in which the sacred functions do not take place Protectorate of Missions - The right of protection exercised by a Christian power in an infidel country with regard to the persons and establishments of the missionaries. Protectories - The institutions for the shelter and training of the young, designed to afford neglected or abandoned children shelter, food, clothing and education Protestant Episcopal Church - Protestant denomination born from Anglicanism Protestantism - Discussion of Protestant beliefs and doctrines Prothonotary Apostolic - A member of the highest college of prelates in the Roman Curia Protocol - The formula used at the beginning of public acts drawn up by notaries; also, the compact register in which notaries register these acts; finally, the first draft of these acts Protopope - A priest of higher rank in the Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches, corresponding in general to the Western archpriest or dean. Protus and Hyacinth, Saints - Martyrs in the Valerian persecution (257-259) Prout, Father - The name by which Irish author Father Francis Mahony is generally known Provancher, Léon Abel - Quebec naturalist (1820-1892) Proverbs, Book of - One of the Sapiential writings of the Old Testament Providence, Congregations of (I) - Focuses on the Daughters of Providence in particular Providence, Congregations of (II) - Focuses on the Sisters of Providence in particular Providence, Congregations of (III) - Focuses on the Sisters of Charity in Montreal Providence, Congregations of (IV) - Describes the Sisters of Sainte Anne in Turin Providence, Congregations of (V) - Sisters of the Institute of Charity Providence, Diocese of - Diocese in Rhode Island in the United States Providence, Divine - Providence is God Himself considered in that act by which in His wisdom He so orders all events within the universe that the end for which it was created may be realized. Province, Ecclesiastical - An ecclesiastical administrative district under the jurisdiction of an archbishop. Provincial - An officer acting under the superior general of a religious order, and exercising a general supervision over all the local superiors in a division of the order called a province. Provincial Council - A deliberative assembly of the bishops of an ecclesiastical province, summoned and presided over by the metropolitan, to discuss ecclesiastical affairs and enact disciplinary regulations for the province. Provision, Canonical - A term signifying regular induction into a benefice Provisors, Statute of - The English statute usually so designated is the 25th of Edward III . . . Provost - An official in a chapter Prudence - One of the four cardinal virtues Prudentius, Aurelius Clemens - Biographical article on the poet Prudentius - Bishop of Troyes (d. 861) Prüm - Former Benedictine abbey near Trier, founded in 720 Prusias ad Hypium - Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in the Honoriad. Prussia - The Kingdom of Prussia covers 134,616 square miles and includes about 64.8 per cent of the area of the German Empire. Przemysl - Latin see in Galicia, suffragan of Lemberg Przemysl, Sambor, and Sanok - Eastern Catholic diocese of Western Galicia in Austria Psalms - The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the 'Writings', i.e. of the third section of the printed Hebrew Bible of today. Psalms, Alphabetic - Psalms that begin with the successive letters of the alphabet. Psalterium - The Book of the Psalms only concerns us here in so far as it was transcribed and used for liturgical purposes. . . Psaume, Nicholas - Bishop of Verdun (1518-1575) Psellus, Michael - Byzantine statesman, scholar and author (1018-1078) Psychology - The science which treats of the soul and its operations Psychotherapy - That branch of therapeutics which uses the mind to influence the body Ptolemais - Titular see in Egypt, metropolis of Thebais Secunda. Ptolemais - Also called Saint-Jean d'Acre Ptolemy the Gnostic - Second-century heretic and personal disciple of Valentinus. Public Authority - The moral power of command, supported by physical coercion, which the State exercises over its members Publican - A member or employee of the Roman financial companies who collected the taxes. Public Honesty (Decency) - A diriment matrimonial impediment consisting in a relationship, which arises from a valid betrothal, or from a marriage approved by the Church but not consummated. Pueblo Indians - Indians of central New Mexico and northeastern Arizona Puget, Pierre - Painter, sculptor, architect, and naval constructor (1622-1694) Pugh, George Ellis - American jurist and statesman (1822-1876) Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore - Life and work of the architect Puiseux, Victor-Alexandre - French mathematician and astronomer (1820-1883) Pulaski, Casimir - Polish-American patriot and soldier (1748-1779) Pulati - Ancient diocese located in former Albania Pulcheria, Saint - Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire, staunch opponent of Nestorianism and Eutychianism, d. 453 Pulci, Luigi - Italian poet (1432-1484) Pullen, Robert - Medieval theologian (d. 1147) Pullus, Robert - Twelfth-century Cardinal, English philosopher and theologian Pulpit - An elevated stand to preach on Punishment, Capital - The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. Puno - Diocese near Lima, Peru Purcell, John Baptist - Archbishop of Cincinnati (1800-1883) Purgative Way - Stages in the spiritual life Purgatorial Societies - Pious associations or confraternities in the Catholic Church, which have as their purpose to assist in every possible way the poor souls in purgatory. Purgatory - A place or condition of temporal punishment for those who, departing this life in God's grace, are, not entirely free from venial faults, or have not fully paid the satisfaction due to their transgressions. Purgatory, St. Patrick's - This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal dates from the days of St. Patrick . . . Purim - Jewish feast that commemorates the deliverance of the Jews from Haman Puritans - In its original meaning it signified those who strove for a worship purified from all taint of Catholicism . . . Pusey and Puseyism - Anglican divine, patristic scholar, voluminous writer, preacher and controversialist (1800-1882) Pustet - The name of a family of well-known Catholic publishers. Putative Marriage - A matrimonial alliance which is commonly reputed to be valid, and is sincerely believed by one at least of the contracting parties to be so in the eyes of the Church, because entered into in good faith; but which in reality is null and void, owing to the existence of a diriment impediment Puteanus, Erycius - Belgian humanist and philologist (1574-1646) Putzer, Joseph - Theologian and canonist (1836-1904) Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre - French painter (1824-1898) Puyallup Indians - Tribe of Salishan linguistic stock in Washington Pyrker, Johann Ladislaus von Oberwart - Hungarian priest (1772-1847) Pyrrhonism - A system of skepticism founded by the Greek philosopher Pyrrho Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism - Concise summary of doctrines attributed to Pythagoras Pyx - Small vessel in which the Holy Eucharist is carried to the sick.