Eadmer - Precentor of Canterbury and historian Eanbald I - The first Archbishop of York by that name Eanbald II - Date of birth unknown; died 810 or 812 East Indies, Patriarchate of the - In consequence of an agreement between the Holy See and the Portuguese Government in 1886 Easter - Includes information on the feast and customs Easter Controversy - The dispute regarding the proper time of observing Easter Eastern Churches - Eastern Churches depended originally on the Eastern Empire at Constantinople Eastern Schism - From the time of Diotrephes (III John 1:9-10) there have been continual schisms, of which the greater number were in the East Easterwine - Abbot of Wearmouth, nephew of St. Benedict Biscop; born 650, died 7 March, 686 Easton, Adam - Cardinal, born at Easton in Norfolk; died at Rome, 15 September (according to others, 20 October), 1397 Eata, Saint - Second bishop of Hexham, d. 686 Ebbo - Archbishop of Reims, b. towards the end of the eighth century; d. 20 March, 851 Ebendorfer, Thomas - German chronicler, professor, and statesman, b. 12 August, 1385, at Haselbach, in Upper Austria; d. at Vienna, 8 Jan., 1464 Eberhard, Matthias - Bishop of Trier, b. 15 Nov., 1815, at Trier (Germany), d. there 30 May, 1876 Eberhard of Ratisbon - A German chronicler about the beginning of the fourteenth century Ebermann, Veit - Theologian and controversialist, born 25 May, 1597, at Rendweisdorff, in Bavaria; died 8 April, 1675 Ebionites - Two varieties: the earlier group called Ebionites denied the divinity of Christ; the later Ebionites were a Gnostic sect who believed that matter was eternal and was God's body Ebner - The name of two German mystics Ecclesiastes - The name given to the book of Holy Scripture which usually follows the Proverbs; the Hebrew Qoheleth probably has the same meaning Ecclesiastical Addresses - Rules as to what is fitting and customary in the matter of ecclesiastical correspondence Ecclesiastical Architecture - All ecclesiastical architecture may be said to have been evolved from two distinct germ-cells, the oblong and the circular chamber Ecclesiastical Archives - A collection of documents, records, and memorials, pertaining to the origin, foundation, growth, history, and constitutions of a diocese, parish, monastery, or religious community under the jurisdiction of the Church Ecclesiastical Art - Article explores the origin, history, and types Ecclesiastical Buildings - This term comprehends all constructions erected for the celebration of liturgical acts, whatever be the name given to them, church, chapel, oratory, and basilica Ecclesiastical Forum - Ecclesiastical jurisdiction is distinguished into that of the internal and external forum Ecclesiasticus - The longest of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible, and the last of the Sapiential writings in the Vulgate of the Old Testament Eccleston, Samuel - Fifth Archbishop of Baltimore, U.S.A (1801-1851) Eccleston, Thomas of - Thirteenth-century Friar Minor and chronicler Echard, Jacques - Historian of the Dominicans, born at Rouen, France, 22 September, 1644; died at Paris, 15 March, 1724 Echave, Baltasar de - Painter, born at Zumaya, Guipuzcoa, Spain, in the latter part of the sixteenth century; died in Mexico about the middle of the seventeenth Echinus - A titular see of Thessaly, Greece Echternach, Abbey of - A Benedictine monastery in the town of that name, in the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg and the Diocese of Trier Echter von Mespelbrunn, Julius - Prince-Bishop of Wuerzburg, b. 18 March, 1545, in the Castle of Mespelbrunn, Spessart (Bavaria); d. 13 Sept., 1617, at Wuerzburg Eck, Johann - Theologian and principal adversary of Luther. Detailed profile by J.P. Kirsch Eckart, Anselm - Missionary, born at Bingen, Germany, 4 August, 1721; died at the College of Polstok, Polish Russia, 29 June, 1809 Eckebert - Abbot of Schoenau, born in the early part of the twelfth century Eckhart, Johann Georg von - German historian, b. at Duingen in the principality of Kalenberg, 7 Sept., 1664; d. at Wuerzburg, 9 Feb., 1730 Eckhart, Meister - Biographical article on the Dominican theologian and mystic. Includes bibliography Eckhel, Joseph Hilarius - German numismatist (1737-1798) Eclecticism - A philosophical term meaning either a tendency of mind in a thinker to conciliate the different views or positions taken in regard to problems, or a system in philosophy which seeks the solution of its fundamental problems by selecting and uniting what it regards as true in the various philosophical schools Economics - The social science which treats of man's activities in providing the material means to satisfy his wants Ecstasy - Offers details of false views Ecuador - An independent state of South America, bounded on the north by Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the south by Peru, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean Ecumenical Councils - Article looking at the definition, place in church governance and short historical sketches of each council until Vatican I Ecumenism - Includes the Catholic Church together with the many other religious communions which have either directly or indirectly, separated from it Edda - A title applied to two different collections of old Norse literature, the poetical or 'Elder Edda' and the prose or 'Younger Edda' Edelinck - The family name of four engravers Eden, Garden of - The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden Edesius and Frumentius - Tyrian Greeks of the fourth century, probably brothers, who introduced Christianity into Abyssinia; the latter a saint and first Bishop of Axum, styled the Apostle of Abyssinia, d. about 383 Edessa - A titular archiepiscopal see in that part of Mesopotamia formerly known as Osrhoene Edgeworth, Henry Essex - Confessor of Louis XVI, and vicar-general of the Diocese of Paris at the height of the French Revolution (1745-1807) Edinburgh - Derives its name from the time (about A.D. 620) when the fortress of Edwin's burgh was raised on a lofty spur of the Pentland Hills, overlooking the Firth of Forth, and established the Anglian dominion in the northern part of the Northumbrian Kingdom Editions of the Bible - Includes Hebrew and Greek editions Edmund, Congregation of Saint - Founded in 1843, by Jean-Baptiste Muard, at Pontigny, France, for the work of popular missions Edmund Arrowsmith, Venerable - English Jesuit and martyr, d. 1628. Short biography Edmund Campion, Saint - English Jesuit, martyr, d. 1581. Biographical article Edmund Rich, Saint - This Archbishop of Canterbury died in 1240, and was canonized within six years. Biography Edmund the Martyr, Saint - Short biography of the King of East Anglia, who died in 870 Education - In the broadest sense, education includes all those experiences by which intelligence is developed, knowledge acquired, and character formed. In a narrower sense, it is the work done by certain agencies and institutions, the home and the school, for the express purpose of training immature minds Educational Association, The Catholic - A voluntary organization composed of Catholic educators and other persons who have an interest in the welfare of Catholic education in the United States Education of the Blind - Includes statistics and history Education of the Deaf - History, aids, and alphabets are discussed Edward III - Detailed biographical article on the King of England Edward Powell, Blessed - Biography of the Welsh priest, Bl. Thomas Abel's companion in martyrdom, d. 1506 Edward the Confessor, Saint - Short biography of the King of England, who died in 1066 Edward the Martyr, Saint - King of England, assassinated at the age of 16 or 17 at the behest of his stepmother. St. Edward was murdered in 979 Edwin, Saint - Biography of the first Christian King of Northumbria, who died in 633. Also known, in Latinized form, as Aeduini Edwy - King of the English, eldest son of Edmund and St. Aelfgifu, born about 940; died 959 Egan, Boetius - Archbishop of Tuam, born near Tuam, Ireland, 1734; died near Tuam, 1798 Egan, Michael - First bishop of Philadelphia, U.S.A., b. in Ireland, most probably in Galway, in 1761; d. at Philadelphia, 22 July, 1814 Egbert, Saint - A Northumbrian by birth, became a monk in Ireland, died in 729 at the age of 90 Egbert - Frequently though incorrectly called 'First King of England', died A.D. 839 Egbert, Archbishop of Trier - Belonged to the family of the Counts of Holland. Died 8 or 9 December, 993 Egbert, Archbishop of York - Son of Eata, brother of the Northumbrian King Eadbert and cousin of King Ceolwulf, to whom the Venerable Bede dedicated his history; date of birth unknown; d. 19 November, 766 Egfrid - King of Northumbria, b. 650; d. 685 Eginhard - Historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the eastern part of the Frankish Empire; d. 14 March, 840, at Seligenstadt Egloffstein, Frederick W. von - Born at Aldorf, near Nuremberg, Bavaria, 18 May, 1824; died in New York, 1885 Egmont, Lamoral, Count of - Born at the Chateau de La Hamaide, in Hainault, 18 Nov., 1522; beheaded at Brussels, 5 June, 1568 Egoism - Synopsis of this ethical system, and short refutation Eguiara y Eguren, Juan José - Mexican scholar (d. 1763) Egwin, Saint - Third bishop of Worcester, founded the Benedictine monastery of Evesham, d. 717 or 720 Egypt - Provides information on history, religion, and literature Egyptian Church Ordinance - An early Christian collection of thirty-one canons regulating ordinations, the liturgy, and other main features of church life Eichendorff, Josef Karl Benedikt - Poet (1788-1857) Eichstätt - Diocese in Bavaria, north of the Danube, and suffragan to Bamberg Eimhin, Saint - Abbot and Bishop of Ros-mic-Truin, d. first half of the sixth century. Some believe that Eimhin is the author of the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick Einhard - Historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the eastern part of the Frankish Empire; d. 14 March, 840, at Seligenstadt Einsiedeln, Abbey of - A Benedictine monastery in the Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland, dedicated to Our Lady of the Hermits Eisengrein, Martin - Catholic theologian and polemical writer, born of Protestant parents at Stuttgart, 28 December, 1535; died at Ingolstadt, 4 May, 1578 Eithene, Saint - Sixth-century Irish woman, visionary Eithne, Saint - Irish princess, converted to Christianity by St. Patrick, died immediately after receiving her First Communion (433) Ekkehard - Name of five monks of the (Swiss) Abbey of St. Gall from the tenth to the thirteenth century Ekkehard of Aura - Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1050; d. after 1125 Elaea - A titular see of Asia Minor Elba - The largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago Elbel, Benjamin - Bavarian moral theologian (1690-1756) Elcesaites - A sect of Gnostic Ebionites El Cid - Popular hero of the chivalrous age of Spain, born at Burgos c. 1040; died at Valencia, 1099. He was given the title of seid or cid (lord, chief) by the Moors and that of campeador (champion) by his admiring countrymen Elder, George - Educator, b. 11 August, 1793, in Kentucky, U.S.A.; d. 28 Sept., 1838, at Bardstown Elder, William Henry - Third Bishop of Natchez, Mississippi, U.S.A., and second Archbishop of Cincinnati, b. in Baltimore, Maryland, 22 March, 1819; d. in Cincinnati, 31 Oct., 1904 Eleazar - Includes information on three uses of this name Elect - Denotes in general one chosen or taken by preference from among two or more; as a theological term it is equivalent to 'chosen as the object of mercy or Divine favour, as set apart for eternal life' Election - In its broadest sense election means a choice among many persons, things, or sides to be taken. In the stricter juridical sense it means the choice of one person among many for a definite charge or function Election, Papal - The method of electing the pope has varied considerably at different periods of the history of the Church. . . Eleutherius, Pope Saint - Native of Nicopolis, served as deacon in the Roman Church, d. about 189 Eleutherius, Saint - First Bishop of Tournai, early sixth century Eleutheropolis - A titular see in Palaestina Prima Elevation, The - The Elevation of the Mass is a rite of comparatively recent introduction El Greco - Spanish artist. Born in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; died at Toledo, 7 April, 1614 Elhuyar y de Suvisa, Fausto de - Mineralogist and chemist (1755-1833) Eli - Discusses the Old Testament priest, and the New Testament father of Joseph Elias - Old Testament prophet Elias of Cortona - Minister General of the Friars Minor, b., it is said, at Bevilia near Assisi, c. 1180; d. at Cortona, 22 April, 1253 Elias of Jerusalem - Died 518; one of the two Catholic bishops (with Flavian of Antioch) who resisted the attempt of the Emperor Anastasius I (491-518) to abolish the Council of Chalcedon (451) Elie de Beaumont, Jean-Baptiste-Armand-Louis-Léonce - Geologist, b. at Canon (Dep. Calvados), near Caen, France, 25 Sept., 1798; d. at Canon, 21 Sept., 1874 Eligius, Saint - Or Eloi. Bishop of Noyon-Tournai, founded several monasteries, d. 660 Elijah - Old Testament prophet Elined, Saint - British princess, virgin, and martyr, fl. c. 490. Venerated especially in Wales Eliseus - A Prophet of Israel Elisha - A Prophet of Israel Elishé - Armenian historian of the fifth century, place and date of birth unknown, d. 480 Eliud, Saint - Archbishop of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at Llandilo Vawr, Carmarthenshire, probably in or before 560 Elizabeth - The wife of Zachary, mother of St. John the Baptist, and relative of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Some believe that it was Elizabeth who proclaimed the Magnificat Elizabeth Ann Seton, Saint - Biography of the founder of the Sisters of Charity in the United States Elizabeth, Sisters of Saint - From an association established by Dorothea Klara Wolff, in connection with the sisters, Mathilde and Maria Merkert, and Franziska Werner, 1842, in Nelsse (Prussia), to tend in their own homes, without compensation, helpless sick persons who could not or would not be received into the hospitals Elizabeth Associations - Charitable associations of women in Germany which aim for the love of Christ to minister to the bodily and spiritual sufferings of the sick poor and of neglected children Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint - Also called St. Elizabeth of Thuringia. Biographical article on the princess, widow, Third Order Franciscan, who died in 1231 Elizabeth of Portugal, Saint - Queen, also known as St. Isabel, d. 1336 Elizabeth of Reute, Saint - Even in her childhood was called 'the good Betha.' Third Order Franciscan, d. 1420 Elizabeth of Schönau, Saint - Benedictine visionary, friend of Hildegarde of Bingen. Elizabeth died in 1165 Ellis, Philip Michael - First Vicar Apostolic of the Western District, England, subsequently Bishop of Segni, Italy, b. in 1652; d. 16 Nov., 1726 Ellwangen Abbey - The earliest Benedictine monastery established in the Duchy of Wurtemberg, situated in the Diocese of Augsburg about thirty miles north-east of the town of Stuttgart Elohim - The common name for God Elphege, Saint - Also called Alphege or Godwine. Hermit, abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, martyred in 1012. Biographical article Elphin - Suffragan of Tuam, Ireland, a see founded by St. Patrick Elusa - A titular see of Palaestina Tertia, suffragan of Petra Elvira, Council of - Held early in the fourth century at Elliberis, or Illiberis, in Spain, a city now in ruins not far from Granada Ely - Ancient diocese in England Elzéar of Sabran - Married, Third Order Franciscan, d. 1323 Emanationism - The doctrine that emanation (Lat. emanare, 'to flow from') is the mode by which all things are derived from the First Reality, or Principle Emancipation, Ecclesiastical - In ancient Rome emancipation was a process of law by which a slave released from the control of his master, or a son liberated from the authority of his father (patria potestas), was declared legally independent. The earliest ecclesiastical employment of this process was in the freeing of slaves Ember Days - The days at the beginning of the seasons ordered by the Church as days of fast and abstinence Embolism - An insertion, addition, interpretation. The word has two specific uses in the language of the Church; in the prayer and in the calendar Embroidery - In Christian worship embroidery was used from early times to ornament vestments Emerentiana, Saint - Virgin and martyr, d. at Rome in the third century Emery, Jacques-André - Superior of the Society of St-Sulpice during the French Revolution, b. 26 Aug., 1732, at Gex; d. at Paris, 28 April, 1811 Emesa - A titular see of Phoenicia Secunda, suffragan of Damascus, and the seat of two Uniat archdioceses, Greek Melchite and Syrian Emigrant Aid Societies - Details of several organizations, the earliest being the Charitable Irish Society of Boston, Massachusetts, founded 17 March, 1737 Emiliana and Trasilla, Saints - Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century Emiliani, Saint Jerome - Soldier, priest, founder of the Order of Somascha, d. 1537 Emmanuel - Signifies 'God with us' (Matthew 1:23), and is the name of the child predicted in Isaias 7:14: 'Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel' Emmaus - A titular see in Palaestina Prima, suffragan of Caesarea Emmeram, Saint - Late seventh-century missionary to Bavaria, where he was martyred Emmeram, Saint, Abbey of - A Benedictine monastery at Ratisbon (Regensburg), named after its traditional founder, the patron saint of the city Emmerich, Anne Catherine - An Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic, born 8 September, 1774, at Flamsche, near Coesfeld, in the Diocese of Munster, Westphalia, Germany; died at Dulmen, 9 February, 1824 Empiricism - Primarily, and in its psychological application, the term signifies the theory that the phenomena of consciousness are simply the product of sensuous experience, i.e. of sensations variously associated and arranged Ems, Congress of - A meeting of the representatives of the German Archbishops Friedrich Karl von Erthal of Mainz, Maximilian Franz of Cologne, Clemens Wenceslaus of Trier, and Hieronymus von Colloredo of Salzburg, at the little town of Bad-Ems, near Coblenz, in August, 1786, for the purpose of protesting against papal interference in the exercise of episcopal powers and fixing the future relations between these archbishops and the Roman pontiff Emser, Hieronymus - The most ardent literary opponent of Luther, born of a prominent family at Ulm, 20 March, 1477; died 8 Nov., 1527 at Dresden Encina, Juan de la - Biographical article commenting on his musical and writing abilities and his priestly positions Enciso, Diego Ximenez de - Dramatic poet, b. in Andalusia, Spain, c. 1585; date of death unknown Enciso, Martín Fernández de - Navigator and geographer, b. at Seville, Spain, c. 1470; d. probably about 1528 at Seville Encolpion - The name given in early Christian times to a species of reliquary worn round the neck, in which were enclosed relics Encratites - Literally, 'abstainers' or 'persons who practised continency', because they refrained from the use of wine, animal food, and marriage Encyclical - According to its etymology, an encyclical is nothing more than a circular letter. In modern times, usage has confined the term almost exclusively to certain papal documents which differ in their technical form from the ordinary style of either Bulls or Briefs, and which in their superscription are explicitly addressed to the patriarchs, primates, archbishops, and bishops of the Universal Church in communion with the Apostolic See Encyclopedia - An abridgment of human knowledge in general or a considerable department thereof, treated from a uniform point of view or in a systematized summary Encyclopedists - Article by C.A. Dubray siscusses the group of philosophers who contributed to the Encyclopedie Endlicher, Stephan Ladislaus - Austrian botanist, linguist, and historian, b. at Pressburg, Hungary, 24 June, 1804; d. at Vienna, 28 March, 1849 Endowment - A property, fund, or revenue permanently appropriated for the support of any person, institution, or object, as a student, professorship, school, hospital Energy, The Law of Conservation of - Includes the history and philosophy Engaddi - The name of a warm spring near the center of the west shore of the Dead Sea, and also of a town situated in the same place Engel, Ludwig - Canonist, b. at Castle Wagrein, Austria; d. at Grillenberg, 22 April 1694 Engelberg, Abbey of - A Benedictine monastery in Switzerland, formerly in the Diocese of Constance Engelbert of Cologne, Saint - Went from excommunicated worldly soldier to martyred archbishop. He was killed by his cousin in 1225 Engelbert - Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Admont in Styria, b. of noble parents at Volkersdorf in Styria, c. 1250; d. 12 May, 1331 Engelbrechtsen, Cornelis - Dutch painter, b. at Leyden, 1468; d. there 1533; is believed to have been identical with a certain Cornelis de Hollandere who was a member of the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1492 England (Before 1066) - History of the occupation, conversion, and development England (1066-1558) - This term England is here restricted to one constituent, the largest and most populous, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland England (After 1558) - Article on the relation of the post-Reformation Catholic church to the English state England, John - First Bishop of Charleston, S.C (1786-1842) Englefield, Sir Henry Charles, Bart. - Antiquary and scientist, b. 1752; d. 21 March, 1822 English College, The, in Rome - Information on its foundation, scholastic status, and students English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729) - Since this article was published, some of the causes for canonization have been successful, and others have progressed from 'venerable' to 'blessed.' English Hierarchy, Reorganization of the - The restoration of the English hierarchy in 1850 was a milestone for English Catholics after the Penal Times English Literature - Latin, French, Italian, Greek, and Spanish literatures are a few of the influences English Revolution of 1688 - The history of the Revolution resolves itself into a catalogue of various ill-judged measures which alienated the support of the Established Church, the Tory party, and the nation as a whole Ennodius, Magnus Felix - Rhetorician and bishop, b. probably at Arles, in Southern Gaul, in 474; d. at Pavia, Italy, 17 July, 521 Enoch - The name of the son of Cain, of a nephew of Abraham, of the first-born of Ruben, and of the son of Jared and the father of Mathusala Enoch, Book of - Introductory article Ensingen, Ulrich - Belonged to a family of architects who came from Einsingen near Ulm, Wurtemberg, and who shared as master-builders in the construction of the most important Gothic buildings of the fifteenth century in Southern Germany Entablature - A superstructure which lies horizontally upon the columns in classic architecture Enthronization - From Greek 'enthronizein, to place on a throne Envy - Taken to be synonymous with jealousy Eoghan, Saints - Some details on five Irish saints of this name Epact - The surplus days of the solar over the lunar year; hence, more freely, the number of days in the age of the moon on 1 January of any given year. The whole system of epacts is based on the Metonic Lunar Cycle, and serves to indicate the days of the year on which the new moons occur Eparchy - Originally the name of one of the divisions of the Roman Empire Epée, Charles-Michel de l' - A philanthropic priest and inventor of the sign alphabet for the instruction of the deaf and dumb; was b. at Versailles, 25 November, 1712; d. at Paris, 23 December, 1789 Eperies - Diocese of the Greek Ruthenian Rite, suffragan to Gran Ephesians, Epistle to the - The letter which, in the manuscripts containing the Epistles of St. Paul, bears the title 'To the Ephesians' comprises two parts distinctly separated by a doxology (Eph., iii, 20 sq.) Ephesus - A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century B.C. by Androcles, son of the Athenian King Codrus, with the aid of Ionian colonists Ephesus, Council of - The third ecumenical council, held in 431 Ephesus, Robber Council of - The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of Chalcedon, 451, and have thus been preserved. The remainder of the Acts are known only through a Syriac translation by a Monophysite monk, published from the British Museum MS. Addit. 14,530, written in the year 535 Ephesus, Seven Sleepers of - One of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after wakes up to find the world changed Ephod - a kind of garment, which differed according to its use by the high-priest, by other persons present at religious services, or as the object of idolatrous worship Ephraem, Saint - Long article on the life and works of the hermit, deacon, poet Ephraemi Rescriptus, Codex - The last in the group of the four great uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible, received its name from the treatises of St. Ephraem the Syrian (translated into Greek) which were written over the original text Ephraim of Antioch - One of the defenders of the Faith of Chalcedon (451) against the Monophysites, b. at Amida in Mesopotamia; d. in 545 Epicureanism - In its popular sense, the word stands for a refined and calculating selfishness, seeking not power or fame, but the pleasures of sense, particularly of the palate, and those in company rather than solitude Epiklesis - The name of a prayer that occurs in all Eastern liturgies (and originally in Western liturgies also) after the words of Institution, in which the celebrant prays that God may send down His Holy Spirit to change this bread and wine into the Body and Blood of His Son Epimachus and Gordianus, Saints - Roman martyrs under Julian the Apostate. Both died in 362. Although they did not die together, they are buried together, and the cemetery is named after them. Identifies two other martyrs named Gordianus, considers several named Epimachus Epiphania - A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, in Asia Minor, suffragan of Anazarbus Epiphanius - A translator of various Greek works in the middle of the sixth century of the Christian Era Epiphanius of Constantinople - Succeeded John II (518-20) as Patriarch of Constantinople Epiphanius of Salamis - Biographical article on the fourth-century monk and bishop Epiphany - The feast was called among the Syrians denho (up-going), a name to be connected with the notion of rising light expressed in Luke. I, 78 Episcopalians - Protestant denomination born from Anglicanism Episcopal Subsidies - Since the faithful are obliged to contribute to the support of religion, especially in their own diocese, a bishop may ask contributions for diocesan needs from his own subjects, and particularly from the clergy Epistemology - That branch of philosophy which is concerned with the value of human knowledge Epistle (in Scripture) - The Old Testament exhibits two periods in its idea of an epistle: first, it presents the epistle under the general concept of a book or a writing; secondly, it regards the epistle as a distinct literary form. The New Testament presents a very highly developed form of an epistle Epping, Joseph - German astronomer and Assyriologist, b. at Neuenkirchen near Rhine in Westphalia, 1 Dec., 1835; d. at Exaeten, Holland, 22 Aug., 1894 Erasmus, Desiderius - Article by Joseph Sauer. An extensive overview of the life, works and impact of this scholar Erastus and Erastianism - The name 'Erastianism' is often used in a somewhat loose sense as denoting an undue subservience of the Church to the State Erbermann, Veit - Theologian and controversialist, born 25 May, 1597, at Rendweisdorff, in Bavaria; died 8 April, 1675 Ercilla y Zúñiga, Alonso de - Spanish soldier and poet, born in Madrid, 7 August, 1533; died in the same city, 29 November, 1594 Erconwald, Saint - Monk, Bishop of London, founded two monasteries, d. about 690. Biography Erdeswicke, Sampson - Antiquarian, date of birth unknown; died 1603 Erdington Abbey - Situated in a suburb of Birmingham, Warwickshire, England, belongs to the Benedictine congregation of St. Martin of Beuron, Germany, and is dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury Erhard of Ratisbon, Saint - Seventh-century Irish-born missionary bishop Erie - Diocese established 1853 Erin, The Twelve Apostles of - Twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the School of Clonard in Meath Eriugena, John Scotus - Article by William Turner recounts this scholar's life and influence, and evaluates his teachings Ermland - A district of East Prussia and an exempt bishopric. St. Adalbert of Prague (d. 997) and St. Bruno of Querfurt (d. 1009) converted the early inhabitants of this region, the heathen Prussians, to Christianity and two centuries later Teutonic Knights and members of the Cistercian Order introduced civilization also into the land Ernakulam, Vicariate Apostolic of - In May, 1887, the churches of Syrian Rite in Malabar were separated from those of the Latin Rite and formed into the Vicariates of Trichur and Kottayam under European prelates. In response, however, to the petitions of the Syrian Catholics desirous of obtaining bishops of their own race and rite, Leo XIII by his brief 'Quae Rei Sacrae' (28 July, 1896) divided the territory anew into three vicariates: Trichur, Changanacherry, and Ernakulam Ernan, Saints - Some people count more than two dozen saints of this name. Article tries to distinguish four of them Ernst of Hesse-Rheinfels - The sixth son of Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, after whose resignation of the government in 1627 to his son Wilhelm V, Ernst and his brother Hermann respectively founded the collateral lines of Hesse-Rheinfels and Hesse-Rotenburg Ernulf - Architect, b. at Beauvais, France, in 1040; d. 1124 Errington, William - Priest, founder of Sedgley Park School, b. 17 July, 1716; d. 28 September, 1768 Error - Reduplicatively regarded, is in one way or another the product of ignorance. But besides the lack of information which it implies, it adds the positive element of a mental judgment, by which something false is held to be true, or something true avouched to be false Erskine, Charles - Cardinal, b. at Rome, 13 Feb., 1739; d. at Paris, 20 March, 1811 Erthal, Franz Ludwig von - Prince-Bishop of Wuerzburg and Bamberg, b. at Lohr on the Main, 16 September, 1730; d. at Wuerzburg, 16 February, 1795 Erthal, Friedrich Karl Joseph, Freiherr von - Last Elector and Archbishop of Mainz, b. 3 Jan., 1719, at Mainz; d. 25 July, 1802, at Aschaffenburg Erwin of Steinbach - One of the architects of the Strasburg cathedral, date of birth unknown; d. at Strasburg, 17 January, 1318 Erythrae - A titular see in Asia Minor. According to legend the city was founded by colonists from Crete Erzerum (Theodosiopolis) - The kings of Armenia established their summer residence here. Later Garin fell into the power of the Byzantines, who named it Theodosiopolis (415), under which title it is still a Latin titular see Esau - The eldest son of Isaac and Rebecca, the twin-brother of Jacob Esch, Nicolaus van - A famous mystical theologian, b. in Oisterwijk near Hertogenbosch (Boisle-Duc), Holland, in 1507; d. 19 July, 1578 Eschatology - A survey of the subject in various pre-Christian religions and cultures, an examination of the development of eschatology in the Old Testament, brief overview of Christian teaching Escobar, Marina de - Mystic and foundress of a modified branch of the Brigittine Order b. at Valladolid, Spain, 8 Feb., 1554; d. there 9 June, 1633 Escobar y Mendoza, Antonio - Preacher and writer, born at Valladolid in 1589; died there, 4 July, 1669 Escorial, The - A building in Spain situated on the south-eastern slope of the Sierra Guadarrama about twenty-seven miles northwest of Madrid. Its proper title is El Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial, Escorial being the name of a small town in the vicinity Esdras - Or Ezra. Article on the man and the books which bear his name Esglis, Louis-Philippe Mariauchau d' - Eighth Bishop of Quebec, Canada; born Quebec, 24 April, 1710; died 7 June, 1788 Eskil - Archbishop of Lund, Skåne, Sweden; b. about 1100; d. at Clairvaux, 6 (7?) Sept., 1181 Eskimo - A littoral race occupying the entire Arctic coast and outlying islands of America from below Cook Inlet in Alaska to the mouth of the St. Lawrence Esnambuc, Pierre Belain, Sieur d' - Captain in the French marine, b. 1565, at Allouville, near Yvetot (Seine-Inferieure); d. at St. Christopher in Dec., 1636 ESP - A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to denote 'the ability of one mind to impress or to be impressed by another mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense' Espejo, Antonio - A Spanish explorer, whose fame rests upon a notable expedition which he conducted into New Mexico and Arizona in 1582-3 Espen, Zeger Bernhard van - Belgian canonist, born at Louvain, 9 July, 1646; died at Amersfoort, Netherlands, 2 Oct., 1728 Espence, Claude D' - French theologian, born in 1511 at Chalons-sur-Marne; died 5 Oct., 1571, at Paris Espinel, Vincent - Poet and novelist; born at Ronda (Malaga), Spain, 1544; died at Madrid, 1634 Espinosa, Alonso De - Spanish priest and historian of the sixteenth century Espousals - A contract of future marriage between a man and a woman, who are thereby affianced Espousals of the Blessed Virgin Mary - A feast of the Latin Church Essence and Existence - Essence, described as that whereby a thing is what it is. Existence is that whereby the essence is an actuality in the line of being Essenes - One of three leading Jewish sects mentioned by Josephus as flourishing in the second century B.C., the others being the Pharisees and the Sadducees Est, Willem Hessels van - Famous commentator on the Pauline Epistles (1542-1613) Establishment, The - The union of Church and State setting up a definite and distinctive relation between the two is frequently expressed in English by the use of the word 'establishment' Estaing, Comte d' - French admiral, b. at the chateau de Ravel (Auvergne), 28 November, 1729; d. at Paris, 28 April, 1794 Esther - Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is identified with Xerxes (485-465 B.C.) Estiennot de la Serre, Claude - Benedictine (1639-1699) Eternity - Eternity is defined by Boetius (De Consol. Phil., V, vi) as 'possession, without succession and perfect, of interminable life' Ethelbert, Saint - Biography of the King of the East Angles, who was murdered in 794 Ethelbert, Saint - King of Kent, a worshipper of Odin well into his adulthood, converted to Christianity, d. 616. Biography Ethelbert - Archbishop of York Etheldreda, Saint - Queen of Northumbria, twice married for reasons of state, d. 679. Biography Ethethard - The fourteenth Archbishop of Canterbury, England, date of birth unknown; died 12 May, 805 Ethelwold, Saint - Bishop of Winchester, called 'father of monks,' d. 984 Etherianus, Hugh and Leo - Brothers, Tuscans by birth, employed at the court of Constantinople under the Emperor Manuel I (Comnenus, 1143-1180) Ethics - Many writers regard ethics as any scientific treatment of the moral order and divide it into theological, or Christian, ethics (moral theology) and philosophical ethics (moral philosophy) Ethiopia - Includes geography, history, and religion Etschmiadzin - An Armenian monastery, since 1441 the ecclesiastical capital of the schismatic Armenians, and seat of their patriarch or catholicos, whom the greater part of the Non-Uniat Armenian Church acknowledge as their head Euaria - A titular see of Phoenicia Secunda or Libanensis, in Palestine Eucarpia - A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris in Asia Minor Eucharist, Introduction to the - The name given to the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar its twofold aspect of sacrament and Sacrifice of Mass, and in which Jesus Christ is truly present under the bread and wine Eucharist, as a Sacrament - Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the Blessed Eucharist is unquestionably a sacrament of the Church Eucharist, as a Sacrifice - The word Mass (missa) first established itself as the general designation for the Eucharistic Sacrifice in the West after the time of Pope Gregory the Great, the early Church having used the expression the 'breaking of bread' (fractio panis) or 'liturgy' Eucharist, Early Symbols of the - The earliest and always the favourite symbol of the Eucharist in the monuments was that inspired by the miracle of the multiplication of the loaves and fishes; the banquet of the seven Disciples appears only in one (second-century) catacomb scene; the miracle of Cana in two, one of which is of the early third, the other of the fourth, century Eucharist, Real Presence of Christ in - Article considers: the fact of the Real Presence; the several allied dogmas grouped about it; and the speculations of reason, so far as speculative investigation regarding the august mystery under its various aspects is permissible, and so far as it is desirable to illumine it by the light of philosophy Eucharistic Congresses - Gatherings of ecclesiastics and laymen for the purpose of celebrating and glorifying the Holy Eucharist and of seeking the best means to spread its knowledge and love throughout the world Eucharistic Prayer - Article divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of the Canon; (III) The text and rubrics of the Canon; (IV) Mystical interpretations Eucharius, Saint - First bishop of Trier (Treves). Second half of third century Eucherius, Saint - Bishop of Lyons, theologian, d. about 449 Euchologion - The name of one of the chief Service books of the Byzantine Church. It corresponds more or less to the Missal and Ritual Eudes, Blessed Jean - French missionary, religious founder, writer, d. 1680 Eudists - An ecclesiastical society instituted at Caen, France, 25 March, 1643, by Jean Eudes Eudocia - Aelia Eudocia, sometimes wrongly called Eudoxia, was the wife of Theodosius II; died c. 460. Her original name was Athenais, and she was the daughter of Leontius, one of the last pagans who taught rhetoric at Athens Eudoxias - A titular see of Galatia Secunda in Asia Minor, suffragan of Pessinus Eugendus, Saint - Fourth abbot of Condat, d. 510. Also called St. Augendus, Oyand, or Oyan Eugene I, Saint, Pope - Made bishop of Rome after Pope St. Martin I had been in exile for 14 months. Eugene died in 657 Eugene II, Pope - Elected 6 June, 824; died 27 Aug., 827 Eugene III, Pope - Cistercian monk and abbot chosen by unanimous vote of the College of Cardinals to succeed Lucius II. Blessed Eugene died in 1151 Eugene IV, Pope - Gabriello Condulmaro, or Condulmerio, b. at Venice, 1388; elected 4 March, 1431; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1447 Eugenics - Eugenics literally means 'good breeding'. It is defined as the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally Eugenius I - Archbishop of Toledo, successor in 636 of Justus in that see; d. 647 Eugenius II (the Younger) - Archbishop of Toledo from 647 to 13 Nov., 657, the date of his death Eugenius of Carthage, Saint - Unanimously elected bishop of Carthage, exiled for a time for speaking out against the Arians, died 505 Eulalia of Barcelona, Saint - Martyred 12 February, 304, patron saint of sailors Eulogia - The term has been applied in ecclesiastical usage to the object blessed. It was occasionally used in early times to signify the Holy Eucharist, and in this sense is especially frequent in the writings of St. Cyril of Alexandria Eulogius of Alexandria, Saint - Patriarch of Alexandria. Argued against Novatians, and against Nestorius and Eutyches. Eulogius died in 607 Eulogius of Cordova, Saint - Writer, martyr, elected Archbishop of Toledo shortly before he was beheaded (11 March, 859) Eumenia - A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana in Asia Minor, and suffragan to Hierapolis Eunan, Saint - Irish-born abbot of Iona, and St. Columba's biographer Eunomianism - A phase of extreme Arianism prevalent amongst a section of Eastern churchmen from about 350 until 381; as a sect it is not heard of after the middle of the fifth century Euphemius of Constantinople - Succeeded as patriarch Flavitas (or Fravitas, 489-490), who succeeded Acacius (471-489) Euphrasia, Saint - A desert mother, died after 410 Euphrosyne, Saint - According to the Vitae Patrum, passed as a man and lived in a men's monastery for 38 years. She died in about 470 Euroea - A titular see of Epirus Vetus in Greece, suffragan of Nicopolis Europe - The conception of Europe as a distinct division of the earth, separate from Asia and Africa, had its origin in ancient times Europus - A titular see in Provincis Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis Eusebius, Saint - Bishop of Vercelli, exiled for defending St. Athanasius, anti-Arian, martyr, d. 371 Eusebius, Saint - Anti-Arian bishop of Samosata, martyr, d. 379 or 380 Eusebius, Saint - A Roman presbyter, confessor, d. possibly in 357 Eusebius, Saint, Pope - Reigned for only four months, in 309 or 310, was deported, died in exile, is counted as a martyr Eusebius, Chronicle of - Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the 'Chronograph' or 'Chronographies'; the second he terms the 'Canon', or 'Canons', and also the 'Chronological Canons' Eusebius Bruno - Bishop of Angers, b. in the early part of the eleventh century; d. at Angers, 29 August, 1081 Eusebius of Alexandria - Ecclesiastical writer and author of a number of homilies well known in the sixth and seventh centuries Eusebius of Cæsarea - Biographical article on the 'Father of Church History.' Eusebius of Dorylæum - Bishop of Dorylaeum in Asia Minor, was the prime mover on behalf of Catholic orthodoxy against the heresies of Nestorius and Eutyches Eusebius of Laodicea - An Alexandrian deacon who had some fame as a confessor and became bishop of Laodicea in Syria, date of birth uncertain: d. about 268 Eusebius of Nicomedia - Bishop, place and date of birth unknown; d. 341. He was a pupil at Antioch of Lucian the Martyr, in whose famous school he learned his Arian doctrines Eustace, Saint - Companion of St. Columbanus and second abbot of Luxeuil, d. 625 Eustace, John Chetwode - Antiquary, b. in Ireland, c. 1762; d. at Naples, Italy, 1 Aug., 1815 Eustace, Maurice - His own father had him arrested for secretly taking Holy Orders, and Maurice's brother accused him of treason. Martyred at Dublin in 1581 Eustachius, Bartolomeo - A distinguished anatomist of the Renaissance period Eustachius and Companions, Saints - Second-century Roman martyrs Eustathius, Saint - Anti-Arian bishop of Antioch, died in exile, probably in 360 Eustathius of Sebaste - Born about 300; died about 377. He was one of the chief founders of monasticism in Asia Minor, and for a long time was an intimate friend of St. Basil Eustochium Julia, Saint - Daughter of St. Paula. Monastic, spoke Latin and Greek, read Hebrew, the recipient of a famous letter from St. Jerome. She died in 419 or 420 Euthalius - A deacon of Alexandria and later Bishop of Sulca Euthanasia - From Greek eu, well, and thanatos, death, easy, painless death Euthymius, Saint - Called 'the Great,' abbot in Palestine, d. 473 Eutropius of Valencia - Spanish bishop; d. about 610 Eutyches - An heresiarch of the fifth century Eutychianism - Eutychianism and Monophysitism are usually identified as a single heresy. But as some Monophysites condemned Eutyches, the name Eutychians is given by some writers only to those in Armenia Eutychianus, Saint, Pope - The successor of Pope Felix I. Eutychianus died in 283 Eutychius I - Patriarch of Constantinople, b. about 512, in Phrygia; d. Easter Day, 5 April, 582 Eutychius - Melchite Patriarch of Alexandria, author of a history of the world, b. 876, at Fustat (Cairo); d. 11 May, 940 Evagrius - Church historian (536-594) Evagrius - Short article on this important fourth-century author of ascetical writings Evangeliaria - Liturgical books containing those portions of the Gospels which are read during Mass or in the public offices of the Church Evangelical Alliance, The - An association of Protestants belonging to various denominations founded in 1846 Evangelical Church - Almost from the beginning the new Evangelical Church was split, first into two communions, the Lutheran and the Reformed, then into a multitude of sects Evangelical Counsels - The difference between a precept and a counsel lies in this, that the precept is a matter of necessity while the counsel is left to the free choice of the person to whom it is proposed Evangelist - In the New Testament this word, in its substantive form, occurs only three times: Acts, xxi, 8; Eph., iv, 11; II Tim., iv, 5. It seems to indicate not so much an order in the early ecclesiastical hierarchy as a function Evaristus, Pope Saint - Sometimes called Aristus. Martyr, died about 107 Eve - First woman; wife of Adam Eve of a Feast - In the first ages, during the night before every feast, a vigil was kept. In the evening the faithful assembled in the place or church where the feast was to be celebrated and prepared themselves by prayers, readings from Holy Writ (now the Offices of Vespers and Matins), and sometimes also by hearing a sermon Evesham Abbey - Founded by St. Egwin, third Bishop of Worcester, about 701, in Worcestershire, England, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Evil - In a large sense, described as the sum of the opposition, which experience shows to exist in the universe, to the desires and needs of individuals; whence arises, among human beings at least, the sufferings in which life abounds Evin, Saint - Contemporary of St. Abban of Magheranoidhe, and often confused with St. Evin of Rosglass Evodius - The first Bishop of Antioch after St. Peter Evolution, Catholics and - Discussed under the headings: (1) Scientific Hypothesis vs. Philosophical Speculation; (2) Theistic vs. Atheistic Theories of Evolution; (3) The Theory of Evolution vs. Darwinism; and (4) Human Evolution vs. Plant and Animal Evolution Evolution, History and Scientific Foundation of - History, definition, and various arguments Evora - Located in Portugal, raised to archiepiscopal rank in 1544, at which time it was given as suffragans Leiria and Portalegre; in 1570 and later were added Sylves, Ceuta, Congo, Santo Thome, Funchal, Cabo Verde, and Angra Evreux - Diocese in the Department of Eure, France; suffragan of the Archbishopric of Rouen Ewald, Saints - Both saints named Ewald (or Hewald)--Ewald the Black and Ewald the Fair--were Northumbrian priests, martyred in Old Saxony about 695 Ewin, Saint - Contemporary of St. Abban of Magheranoidhe, and often confused with St. Evin of Rosglass Ewing, Thomas - Jurist and statesman, b. in West Liberty, Virginia (now West Virginia), U.S.A., 28 December, 1789; d. at Lancaster, Ohio, 26 October, 1871 Ex Cathedra - Literally 'from the chair', a theological term which signifies authoritative teaching and is more particularly applied to the definitions given by the Roman pontiff Examination - A process prescribed or assigned for testing qualification; an investigation, inquiry Examination of Conscience - By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ascertaining their conformity with, or difformity from, the moral law Examiners, Apostolic - So called because appointed by the Apostolic See for service in Rome. In 1570 Pius V instituted the Apostolic examiners to conduct examinations of candidates for orders and of confessors Examiners, Synodal - The chief purpose of synodal examiners is to conduct competitive examinations or concursus though they may be designated to hold of other examinations Exarch - A title used in various senses both civilly and ecclesiastically Excardination and Incardination - In the ecclesiastical sense the words are used to denote that a given person is freed from the jurisdiction of one bishop and is transferred to that of another Exclusion, Right of - The alleged competence of the more important Catholic countries, Austria, France, and Spain, to indicate to their respective cardinal protector, or cardinal procurator, those members of the Sacred College who were personae minus gratae, so that, if there was a possibility of one of these becoming pope, the authorized cardinal might, before the decisive ballot, give his veto, in the name of his government, against such election Excommunication - Exclusion from the communion, the principal and severest censure, is a medicinal, spiritual penalty that deprives the guilty Christian of all participation in the common blessings of ecclesiastical society Executor, Apostolic - A cleric who puts into execution a papal rescript, completing what is necessary in order that it be effective Exedra - A semicircular stone or marble seat; a rectangular or semicircular recess; the portico of the Grecian palaestra, or gymnasium, in which disputations of the learned were held among the ancients; also, in private houses, the parastas, or vestibule, used for conversation Exegesis, Biblical - The branch of theology which investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred Scripture Exemption - The whole or partial release of an ecclesiastical person, corporation, or institution from the authority of the ecclesiastical superior next higher in rank, and the placing of the person or body thus released under the control of the authority next above the former superior, or under a still higher one, or under the highest authority of all, the pope Exequatur - A faculty which civil rulers impart to a Bull, papal Brief, or other ecclesiastical enactment in order to give it binding force in their respective territories Exeter, Ancient Diocese of - English see, chosen by Leofric, Bishop of Crediton, as his cathedral city in 1050 Exmew, Blessed William Carthusian monk and martyr (d. 1535) Exodus (See Pentateuch) - The name of the first five books of the Old Testament. Exorcism - Exorcism is (1) the act of driving out, or warding off, demons, or evil spirits, from persons, places, or things, which are believed to be possessed or infested by them, or are liable to become victims or instruments of their malice; (2) the means employed for this purpose, especially the solemn and authoritative adjuration of the demon, in the name of God, or any of the higher power in which he is subject Exorcist - (1) In general, any one who exorcises or professes to exorcise demons (cf. Acts 19:13); (2) in particular, one ordained by a bishop for this office, ordination to which is the second of the four minor orders of the Western Church Expectation of the Blessed Virgin Mary - Celebrated on 18 December by nearly the entire Latin Church. Owing to the ancient law of the Church prohibiting the celebration of feasts during Lent (a law still in vigour at Milan), the Spanish Church transferred the feast of the Annunciation from 25 March to the season of Advent, the Tenth Council of Toledo (656) assigning it definitely to 18 December Expectative - An expectative, or an expectative grace, is the anticipatory grant of an ecclesiastical benefice, not vacant at the moment but which will become so, regularly, on the death of its present incumbent Expeditors, Apostolic - Officials who attend to the sending of Bulls, Briefs, and Rescripts, that emanate from the Apostolic Chancery, the Dataria, the Sacred Paenitentiaria, and the Secretariate of Briefs Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament - A manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing it, with proper solemnity, to the view of the faithful in order that they may pay their devotions before it Extension - Philosophical term. From Lat. ex-tendere, to spread out Extension Society, The Catholic Church - The first active agitation for a church extension or home mission society for the Catholic Church in North America was begun in 1904 by an article of the present writer, published in the 'American Ecclesiastical Review' (Philadelphia) Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) - A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to denote 'the ability of one mind to impress or to be impressed by another mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense' Extravagantes - This word is employed to designate some papal decretals not contained in certain canonical collections which possess a special authority, i.e. they are not found in the Decree of Gratian or the three official collections of the 'Corpus Juris' Extreme Unction - A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill Exul Hibernicus - The name given to an Irish stranger on the Continent of Europe in the time of Charles the Great, who wrote poems in Latin, several of which are addressed to the emperor Exultet - The hymn in praise of the paschal candle sung by the deacon, in the liturgy of Holy Saturday Exuperius, Saint - Or Exsuperius. Early fifth-century bishop of Toulouse Eyb, Albrecht von - One of the earliest German humanists, born in 1420 near Ansbach in Franconia; died in 1475 Eyck, Hubert and Jan van - Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and consequently of all the schools of painting in the North of Europe Eycken, Jean Baptiste van - Painter, born at Brussels, Belgium, 16 September, 1809; died at Schaerbeek, 19 December, 1853 Eymard, Venerable Pierre-Julien - Biographical article on the French priest and founder Eymeric, Nicolas - Theologian and inquisitor, born at Gerona, in Catalonia, Spain, c. 1320; died there 4 January, 1399 Eyre, Thomas - First president of Ushaw College; born at Glossop, Derbyshire; in 1748; died at Ushaw, 8 May, 1810 Eyston, Charles - Antiquary, born 1667; died 5 November, 1721; he was a member of the ancient family of Eyston Ezechias - King of Juda, son and successor of Achaz Ezekiel - Son of Buzi, and was one of the priests who, in the year 598 B.C., had been deported together with Joachim as prisoners from Jerusalem Ezion-geber - More properly Ezion-geber, a city of Idumea, situated on the northern extremity of the Aelanitic Gulf, now called the Gulf of Akabah Eznik - A writer of the fifth century, born at Golp, in the province of Taikh, a tributary valley of the Chorokh, in Northern Armenia Ezra - Or Ezra. Article on the man and the books which bear his name Ezzo - A priest of Bamberg in the eleventh century, author of a famous poem known as the 'Song of the Miracles of Christ'